Great question. As far as why some walls (ceilings) work better in the low frequencies (bass)? It's all about resonance. Every air cavity will resonate. Blow across the top of a soda bottle and hear the air cavity resonance. Every air cavity will resonate at a different frequency. Deeper cavities will have a lower (deeper bass) resonance point. Small cavities will have a higher resonance point (higher pitch).
The very simplified generalization is that we can deploy techniques to improve sound isolation above the resonance point, but at resonance and below resonance, our efforts are not effective. So we want to lower that resonance point of a wall through various product and construction techniques. We want the wall to have a low pitch, rather than a high pitch.
Things that lower that resonance point:
Decouple the wall or ceiling. Staggered stud framing, double stud, resilient channel and resilient clips + channel all drop that resonance point.
After decoupling the framing, we can further drop that resonance point by adding a bit of insulation, adding mass to the wall surfaces (drywall) and making the distance between the drywall layers greater.
The lower we drop that resonance point, the more low frequency bass we can contain. Using these simple principles we can contain an extraordinary amount of bass. The kind of bass created by a bank of subwoofers in a nightclub, for example.
The Soundproofing Company