Edge LED: LED strips around the edges of the screen. Not all LED TVs are illuminated from all 4 edges. Some edge LED TVs only have LED strips on the top and bottom or on the sides.
Full Array: LEDs are behind the screen. This is the best setup, but sense its so expensive to manufacture, most companies have stopped making them.
Micro Dimming: I'm not too familiar with this tech. However, from what I've heard, micro dimming is software based. It analyzes the image and adjust the lighting. The F8000 also has a feature which darkens the black bars on movies.
Local Dimming: True local dimming separates the screen into "zones." Each LED zone can dim or brighten depending on what's being displayed on the screen.
Flash lighting, Clouding: Flash lighting is a common problem with LEDs. It looks like a small cone of light coming from the corners of your screen. Clouding is another common problem with LEDs. Clouding happens when the light is not evenly distributed behind the screen. It looks like blotches or clouds of light. Both clouding and flash lighting are usually only visible when you are watching TV in the dark. Also, they are most visible in dark scenes.
Hope this answers your question.