This guide contains "Tips" and "General Guidelines" for adjusting the different picture settings on your TV. It includes an in-depth explanation on what each picture setting is for and how its adjustment affects the overall image.
Even though this info is primarily for the Samsung JS
series, most of the tips will also apply to other TV models.
I am in no way an "expert" on the subject nor a professional calibrator. These suggestions are only a general guide and tips on how to adjust your TV "by eye" and are in no way a replacement for a proper professional TV calibration (which requires some specialized calibration instruments and basic calibration skills/know-how).
Calibrating a TV simply means setting it to match a set of established "standards". When your TV at home is properly calibrated, the image you see on your screen will look as close as possible to what the director of the movie or TV show saw on his monitor (e.g. the Hulk will be the same shade of green on both displays).
To assist with "basic calibration"
, you can always purchase/download a "Calibration DVD" (such as "AVS HD 709
" (free), "DVE HD Basics
", "Spears & Munsil
", or "Disney WOW: World Of Wonder
") which contains test material and patterns that will provide an objective way of measuring the accuracy of the image on your TV.
Always keep in mind that the viewing environment and room lighting will affect these adjustments. Making adjustments in a brightly-lit room will result in different settings than if adjustments are made in a dimly-lit room. Therefore, it’s always wise to make adjustments under the appropriate viewing conditions.
I do not recommend simply "copying" someone else’s settings as every TV (even the same model), every pair of eyes, and every viewing environment will be different. You can always use someone else's shared settings as a starting point
if you want, however, understand that those settings won't look exactly the same on your TV and, in some cases, might actually make your picture look worse. (For "real world" examples of this, see >this post
< by professional calibrator "Chad B" and this article: Sharing Calibration Settings
I highly recommend the use of "Bias Lighting" - especially when viewing in a dark or dimly-lit room. "Bias Lights" help in reducing 'eyestrain' and 'eye fatigue'. As an additional benefit, they also increase the "perceived" contrast of the display, enhancing the TV's black levels, and help mitigate 'blooming' and 'clouding' issues.
For more on "Bias Lights", see What Bias Lighting Is and Why You Should Be Using It
For my "Bias Lights" recommendation see: www.biaslighting.com
(You can also check out >this post
< and >this one
* Many of these picture settings will be a matter of personal preference. *
Most "experts" and professional TV calibrators agree that the most accurate picture mode 'out of the box' is the "Movie" mode - that is to say, it is the mode that will bring you closest to a properly calibrated display. I strongly suggest using this mode for TV shows and movies - especially when viewing in a dark or dimly-lit room
If you have been conditioned to seeing a cooler/bluer, more dynamic picture, the "Movie" mode will appear far too "red" and too dim at first (cooler/bluer colors appear brighter
than warmer/redder ones). However, give it a few days for your eyes and brain to adjust to the new more accurate settings (trust me, they will). After a few days, if you go back to one of the more "dynamic" modes, you’ll notice that the picture will appear far too bright and too blue.
Additionally, some of the advanced settings in this guide are only available/adjustable in the "Movie" mode.
The "Movie" mode is also the preferred
picture mode for viewing HDR content.
As an alternative, you can also try the 'somewhat less accurate' "Standard" mode. Although less accurate, the "Standard" picture mode is brighter (bluer) than the "Movie" mode and therefore could be the preferred choice for some when viewing in a bright room.
The different "Picture Modes" are only preset modes that you use as starting points. Once you start changing different settings, regardless of which mode you started in, you have now created a new "Custom" picture mode.
Any settings recommendations made below are based on the "Movie" mode selection.
(I have mine set to "Movie" for all content.)
This setting adjusts the "Color Temperature" (or the temperature of "white").
Color temperature refers to the color of the light source that's being displayed on your screen. Generally speaking, the "Cool" settings are more suited for viewing in a brightly-lit room whereas the "Warm" settings are more suited for viewing in a dimly-lit room.
In order for your TV to adhere to the director's vision, it needs to reproduce white as closely as possible to the ISF recommended D65 (Daylight 6500K) which is similar to ambient daylight at midday (on a cloudy day). D65 is the standard used throughout the film and TV world.
Going back to expert opinion, most agree that the most accurate setting is one of the "Warm" settings.
Again, you might find that the "Warm" settings make your picture appear too dim and to "red" (or "yellow"). But once again, your eyes/brain will adjust to the new setting in a few days. I would avoid the "Cool" mode if you want an accurate picture. (But again, it does come back to a matter of personal preference.)
On the JS
Series, the "Color Tone" setting you select is stored in the TV's memory. When you change the current picture mode, the stored color tone is applied to the new picture mode automatically.
(I have mine set to "Warm 1" [personal preference]; however "Warm 2" is 'slightly more accurate' [closer to D65])
This setting adjusts the overall brightness
of the screen.
The proper "Backlight" setting will mostly depend on your room lighting (increase it when viewing in a brightly-lit room; decrease it when viewing in a dimly-lit room). The proper setting will also be a matter of personal taste.
If you find that the picture is too dark, simply increase the backlight a little but not too much. Having the backlight set too high can lead to eye-strain and eye-fatigue and can also accentuate any “clouding” or “blooming” issues your set might suffer from.
(I set mine to "10" for a brightly-lit room and "8" for a dimly-lit room.)
This setting adjusts the "White Level" of the picture.
A proper "white level" means that the display is producing an adequate amount of light output (called 'luminance') without compromising its ability to clearly distinguish between full 100% white and a slightly less intense white. When white and just-below-white become merged and indistinguishable and all details disappear into white, we refer to this as "crushed whites" or "clipped whites".
, setting this control too low will result in a dimmer, less intense picture, and a lower contrast ratio.
A good method to properly adjust this setting is to find a brightly lit scene with lots of white/bright areas (e.g. a bright outdoor scene with a bright blue sky and fluffy white clouds). Turn up the contrast level until you start losing detail in the bright/white part of the image. Then dial the setting down a little until the details reappear.
, the easiest and most accurate method to properly adjust it is by using a calibration test pattern.
(I currently have mine set to "95".)
This setting adjusts the "Black Level" of the picture.
The name for this setting should probably be changed on modern TVs because it gets a little confusing. On modern LCD TVs, the "Backlight" setting is what is used to adjust the brightness of the screen, not the "Brightness" setting. This setting is used to adjust the dark parts of an image and determines how "black" the blacks are.
A proper "black level" means that the display produces very deep and dark blacks without obscuring shadow detail. If the brightness control is set too low, gray will appear black ("crushed blacks"), effectively losing information in the shadows (darker details will be lost into black). If the brightness control is set too high, black will appear gray ("elevated blacks"), resulting in a "washed out" picture.
A good method to properly adjust this setting is to find a dark scene in a movie with lots of shadow detail. Turn down the brightness until you start losing shadow detail and everything starts disappearing into blackness. Then dial the setting back up until the shadow details start reappearing but not so much that blacks turn gray and the picture appears "hazy" or "washed out".
, as with the "Contrast" setting, the ideal
method to properly adjust it is with a calibration test pattern.
(I currently have mine set to "44".)
The "Contrast" and "Brightness" settings are interactive
; therefore, they might need to be readjusted again after the initial settings are dialed in. Additionally, it's important to keep in mind that these settings affect all colors at the same time.
When both "white level" (Contrast) and "black level" (Brightness) are set properly, the display will reproduce very bright, intense scenes with full white detail and very dark images with excellent shadow detail. This will help you get the most optimal “dynamic range” out of your TV.
This setting uses an artificial technique to control the "crispness" of the picture.
This setting adds an artificial "edge enhancement" to the image (extra information in the form of an artificial outline around the edges of objects that was not there in the first place) in order to give the impression of greater detail. However
, it's an illusion. While the image might initially appear more defined, in actual fact the edge enhancement removes or hides some fine detail.
As the sharpness control is raised, the image is altered so that, where edges are detected, subtle highlights are added around them to raise the perceived contrast around the edge. This might make edges look sharper/crisper however
it creates "white halos" around them reducing fine detail in those areas of the image.
This setting should be set as low as possible (near the "0" mark). However, on the JS
Series TVs, it appears the sharpness can be raised all the way up to 20 without any apparent detrimental effect.
(I currently have mine set to "10" but anywhere from "0-20" should be okay.)
This setting adjusts the overall "Color Saturation" of the picture, and
controls how bright or dull colors appear to be ("Color Intensity"). The higher the setting, the richer and more saturated the same color will appear.
Contrary to popular belief, the "Color" control is not actually engineered to adjust color saturation. It is a "Chroma Gain" control. Turning it up increases the Chroma of the signal. Turning it down decrease the Chroma. Although related, chroma and saturation are not exactly the same thing. "Chroma" basically means: "the colorfulness of a color relative to a similarly illuminated white."
Essentially, this setting will affect the overall "colorfulness" of the picture. It will affect the saturation of the colors, but it will also significantly affect their intensity.
Color is one of the trickiest things to get right, especially as most TVs have some sort of inherent color bias towards red or green (even in the most accurate picture mode) which means dialing up or down the "Color" control will make some colors look right while others look over- or under-saturated at the same time.
This setting is pretty accurate at "50". However, you can always raise it up a little if you enjoy more saturated, intense colors. However
keep in mind that this setting equally affects all
the colors at the same time; although it might improve the appearance (colorfulness) of one color, it might have a negative effect on other colors (e.g. over-saturate them) resulting in inaccurate colors.
(I currently have mine set to "50".)
This setting adjusts the ratio
of green to red.
Increase the green value to saturate the greens and the red value to saturate the reds.
(You should leave this one alone on the JS
Series. It’s just fine at "50/50".)
Digital Clean View
This setting is for "Digital Noise Reduction" (DNR). It reduces static and ghosting caused by a weak signal.
This setting might improve "low resolution"/"low quality" content by helping to eliminate any excess digital noise in a picture and reduce 'flicker' caused by this. This option is primarily intended for 480i video which will generally have the most "noise" in the signal but can also be used for "low quality" 720p or 1080i content.
When you select "Auto Visualization" (only available with analog channels), the TV displays the signal strength on the bottom of the screen. Green indicates the best possible signal.
(You should leave this setting "OFF" for most content.)
MPEG Noise Filter
This setting reduces MPEG noise or artifacts often found in SD digital material.
This setting, like "Digital Clean View", might improve "low resolution"/"low quality" content by helping to eliminate any excess MPEG noise or artifacts in a picture and reduce 'flicker' caused by this.
(You should leave this setting "OFF" for most content.)
HDMI Black Level
This setting compensates for effects caused by a low black level, such as low contrasts and dull colors. It is only available (not "grayed-out") when the input signal, from a device connected to the TV via HDMI, is set to RGB.
All video discs, including Blu-rays, DVDs and Video CDs, are encoded as YCbCr which has a native "limited" color range of 16-235 (for 8-bit sources). Most HDMI devices (Blu-ray players, Satellite receivers, Cable boxes) will output a YCrCb signal. It is best to set these source components to output YCbCr not
An HDMI device that can output an RGB signal (Computer, Gaming console) can usually be set to output either a "limited" (Video level) color range of 16-235 or
a "full" (PC level) color range of 0-255.
A "Full-Range" 8-bit
RGB signal of 0-255 refers to the number of color variations (256) that are available in each of the Red, Green, and Blue channels (for a total of 16.78 million possible colors/shades).
For a "Limited-Range" 8-bit
signal (16-235), a total 10.65 million colors/shades will be available. Note: The human eye can discriminate up to ten million distinct colors (color variations).
RGB signal (i.e. Deep Color) has a "Full-Range" color depth of 0-1023 (1,024 color variations available in each of the Red, Green, and Blue channels for a total of 1.07 billion
possible colors/shades). For a "Limited-Range" 10-bit RGB signal (64-940), a total 674.53 million colors/shades will be available.
In a Y’CbCr encoding system, the luminance information (or luma
signal) is transmitted separately from the color information and a "color difference system"
is used to derive green. Y′ (pronounced Y-prime) is the luma
component and Cb & Cr are the blue-difference and red-difference chroma
components - they are derived from B-Y’ and R-Y’. In practical application, YCbCr is no different than RGB in terms of quality.
[For more on the Y’CbCr encoding system and Chroma Subsampling, see >this post
When playing back a "Limited-Range" (16-235) RGB signal (Video level), you should set "HDMI Black Level" setting to "Low" in order to match
the input signal and get all the encoded information as it was intended. If you mismatch and play it back with the "Full-Range" RGB setting ("Normal"), you'll clip off the black and white levels and black will look "dark gray" (elevated blacks) and the image will appear "washed-out".
When playing back a "Full-Range" (0-255) RGB signal (PC level), you should set it to "Normal".
The "Low" setting sets the "HDMI Black Level" enhancement for a "Limited-Range" RGB input of 16-235. The "Normal" setting sets the "HDMI Black Level" enhancement for a "Full-Range" RGB input of 0-255. Note: If you are not sure which setting to choose, just leave it on "Auto".
When a YCrCb signal is detected, the "HDMI Black Level" setting will be unavailable ("grayed-out").
HDMI UHD Color
This setting optimizes processing of HDMI UHD(4K) signals up to
8 bits 50/60fps 4:4:4, or
up to 10/12 bits 50/60fps 4:2:0/4:2:2 or
up to 10/12-bits 24/30fps 4:4:4.
HDMI UHD Color set to "OFF" will only support 8-bit UHD(4K) input signals up to 4:2:0 at 50/60fps or
up to 4:4:4 at 24/30fps.
If it is set to "ON" with a device that supports only an HD or FHD signal, there is a chance that the TV may not have the proper picture quality or sound. In this case, leave it "OFF".
This setting only applies to the HDMI inputs and is adjusted individually
for each of them.
This setting should be turned "ON" for the HDMI input that a UHD Blu-ray player (or UHD gaming console) is connected to, to enable the TV to accept and correctly process a 10-bit or 12-bit signal.
Left "OFF", the incoming signal will be "down-converted" to 8-bits (which could result in "color banding"). FYI: UHD Blu-ray discs are encoded at 10-bit 24fps 4:2:0.
This setting optimizes the picture quality for 24fps film based content. However, it is only applicable for interlaced
input signals (480i, 1080i) and will be "grayed-out" for a non-interlaced (progressive) input signal.
An interlaced signal needs to be "de-interlaced" into a non-interlaced form before it can be displayed on a modern digital TV, because fixed-resolution displays only support progressive scanning. However, when the two fields taken at different points in time are re-combined to a full frame displayed at once, visual defects called "interlace artifacts" or "combing artifacts" occur with moving objects in the image.
24fps film based content needs to be converted into 30fps video for TV broadcast using 3:2 pulldown technology. The TV needs to be able to detect this 3:2 pulldown sequence (or cadence) in the incoming interlaced signal in order to correctly process it, using a process called 'inverse telecine' or 'reverse pulldown' to remove the 3:2 pulldown, and de-interlace it.
"Film Mode" engages a process called 'Cadence Detection' which detects the 'cadence' used when converting 24fps film based content into 30fps video for TV broadcast. This allows the video processor in the TV to correctly process the incoming signal so that the content can be properly displayed without interlaced artifacts or loss in picture resolution. This process effectively smooths out frame transitions, minimizing 'telecine judder'.
"Film Mode" has to be turned "ON" for 3:2 pulldown 'detection' and 'correction' to work properly. It needs to be set to "Auto 1" when viewing 1080i content ("Auto 2" when viewing 480i content).
Auto Motion Plus
This setting removes blur and judder from scenes with rapid movement.
Movies and most prime-time TV shows are usually recorded at 24fps; live TV, reality TV, and sports are recorded at 30fps or 60fps. If you have a Blu-ray player that can output at 24Hz/fps, I recommend using this output setting to avoid introducing "3:2 pulldown/telecine judder" (also know as 'presentation' or 'cadence' judder). 'Telecine judder' can be corrected via 'frame-repeat' (e.g. by using 5:5 pulldown on a 120Hz LCD).
However, that said, it's important to also realize that there is a different kind of 'motion judder' that is inherent in the source - especially with content that is filmed at 24fps. This is know as "low-motion/low-framerate judder" or "film judder". Movie directors can reduce the effects of 'film judder' by changing the scene and its lighting, and by reducing extreme camera motions. However, to deal with daylight action scenes, they usually resort to adding 'motion blur' by increasing camera shutter angles or exposure times - the lower the shutter speed, the greater the motion blur.
"Auto Motion Plus" uses 'Motion-Compensated Frame Interpolation' (MCFI) to introduce additional frames between the original frames in order to increase the perceived framerate and reduce 'motion blur' and 'low-motion judder'. This, especially the "Standard" and "Smooth" settings, creates a "Soap Opera Effect" (SOE) and can also introduce undesirable visual artifacts and ghosting, and, sometimes, can even lead to an increase
in 'motion judder' (e.g. 'micro stuttering'; 'playback jitter/choppiness'; 'frame skipping').
MCFI estimates motion trajectories and interpolates new images along the motion trajectories. This may yield high quality conversion if the true motion trajectories are accurately estimated and the occlusion areas caused by motion are properly processed. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to accurately estimate the true motion and to properly process motion-occluded areas.
The most advanced 'frame rate conversion' (FRC) methods use 'motion estimation' (ME), which is the process of finding corresponding points between two video frames using complex algorithms, to improve the quality of 'interpolated frames'. However, not all ME technologies are created equal.
The "Blur Reduction" setting only affect high-framerate
(50/60fps) 'video-based' content while the "Judder Reduction" setting affects low-framerate
(24fps) 'film-based' content.
Even though both settings make use of "motion interpolation" to reduce 'motion blur', it is the "Judder Reduction" control that causes the dreaded "Soap Opera Effect" (SOE) with 'film-based' content.
The "Blur Reduction" setting uses a picture processing technique known as 'High
-Level MCFI' (Motion-Compensated Frame Interpolation), which synthesizes new frames from existing frames to reduce the hold-time thus reducing the perception of motion blur of 'high-motion' (50/60fps) content.
The "Judder Reduction" setting uses 'Low
-Level MCFI' to convert 'low-motion' content (24fps) to 'high-motion' (60fps-240fps) thus creating the perception of fluid motion. As a side-effect of the increased framerate, it makes 'film-based' content (movies; prime-time TV shows) look like 'video-based' content (live TV; reality TV; sports) - it makes it look like you are watching a Soap Opera, thus the term "Soap Opera Effect".
Unless you are one of the few people who actually enjoys the dreaded "Soap Opera Effect", you should either set "Auto Motion Plus" to "OFF" or "Clear" (the lowest setting) - especially when watching prime-time TV shows or movies. The "Clear" setting helps reduce 'motion blur' without causing any apparent/noticeable SOE or visual artifacts.
The "Standard" and "Smooth" settings can reduce 'motion blur' and 'judder' in fast-paced content such as sports and certain video games.
Selecting "Custom" allows you to adjust "Blur Reduction" and "Judder Reduction" individually. Choosing "Custom" also makes available the "LED Clear Motion
" option [see next entry below].
It appears that in 3D mode, setting "Auto Motion Plus" to "OFF" doesn't actually disable 'MCFI'. Therefore, to completely disable all 'frame interpolation' in 3D mode, you need to choose "Custom" and set both "Blur Reduction" and "Judder Reduction" to "0".
(I set mine to "Clear" for most content.)
LED Clear Motion
Your eyes are continuously tracking moving objects on a screen. However, for sample-and-hold displays, such as LCDs and OLEDs, an image is statically displayed for the entire refresh. Your eyes are still moving during a refresh, causing the static image in one refresh to be blurred across your retina before the next refresh steps the image forward in the next frame.
"LED Clear Motion" essentially inserts 'Black Frames' between the original video frames to "reset" your retinal persistence, therefore improving motion clarity. 'BFI' is controlled by switching the backlight on and off in sync with the refresh rate. This achieves a similar effect to closing (or partially closing) the shutter on a cinema projector (or on 3D active glasses).
Although this significantly reduces perceived 'ghosting' and 'motion blur', the intrinsic nature of BFI inevitably causes a drop in screen luminance/brightness and an increase in visible 'flicker' ('strobing'). Therefore, if you turn ON "LED Clear Motion", you will need to increase your "Backlight" setting.
This setting controls the TV’s 'local dimming' feature. It adjusts the brightness of individual areas on the screen in order to maximize contrast automatically/dynamically, increasing the screen's "contrast ratio" and "dynamic range". It also deepens black levels considerably and helps to attenuate backlight inconsistencies and reduce clouding.
"Smart LED" adjusts the brightness of individual areas on the screen by either "boosting" or "dimming" the LEDs behind different parts of the screen. This is implemented with the help two proprietary 'software technologies' that Samsung refers to as "Precision Black" and "Peak Illuminator".
I recommend that you leave it ON. (What's the point in purchasing, and paying more for, a TV with "local dimming" if you're not going to use it?)
On the JS9000, I recommend setting it to "High" for most HDR content.
(I have mine set to "High" on my JS9000, however, many prefer the less aggressive "Standard" setting. On the JS9500, I recommend either "Standard" or "Low".)
This setting dims the top and bottom areas ("Black/Letterbox Bars") of some widescreen movies to provide a more immersive viewing experience.
Additionally, according to Samsung's Website:
"It remarkably improves black levels and quality of subtitles, and at the same time automatically adjusts the brightness level according to dark areas shown on the screen to elevate movie viewing experience... black area in the picture becomes blacker to give real dramatic effect... It provides clear and optimized video quality... [and it] enhances the picture quality with increased visibility."
[For source, see Link 1
and Link 2
(You can leave it "ON" all the time.)
This setting is a software based contrast enhancer
that automatically or "dynamically" balances and makes adjustments to the screen contrast level (in real time) for an optimal setting.
"Dynamic Contrast" uses a processor inside the display to analyze the average, overall picture brightness and adjusts the backlight level on-the-fly. This helps render deeper blacks in predominantly dark scenes and brighter whites in mostly bright picture content.
This is very much a "preference" setting. Many "experts" recommend turning it OFF because they feel it "crushes" the blacks too much and "blows out" some of the highlights (clipped whites) - which also results in a change to the 'gamma curve'.
Nevertheless, I do find that this setting does significantly improve the picture quality of certain content by increasing the "apparent" or "perceived" contrast ratio and black levels adding more "punch" and "depth" to the picture giving it a sharper almost 3D appearance. However, keep in mind that setting "Dynamic Contrast" too high will
result in a loss of detail in both bright and dark areas.
I recommend setting it to "Medium" for most HDR content.
(I set mine to either "Medium" or "High" depending on the content being viewed.)
This setting enhances picture depth by adjusting/deepening black levels to "plasma-like" levels.
, it accomplishes this by reducing dark grays to near black levels ("black crush") resulting in a loss of 'shadow detail'/'black detail', which is why most "experts" recommend turning it OFF.
I recommend that you play around with this setting, after
you have finished adjusting all the other settings, to see if you prefer to have it "ON" or "OFF". (How much loss of shadow detail are you willing to live with to get those deeper blacks?) It might be best to leave it OFF when viewing a movie that has a lot of dark scenes however.
(I have mine set to "OFF")
This setting darkens or lightens skin tones.
(You can leave this one as is.)
RGB Only Mode
This setting adjusts the red, green, and blue levels individually.
(You can leave this one alone.)
This setting adjusts the "range of colors" ('Color Gamut') that can be displayed on the screen.
Most content that you will probably be viewing on your new TV was mastered to the more narrow Rec.709 Color Space and therefore won’t really benefit from the expanded color gamut that our TVs are capable of displaying/rendering. Therefore, to display accurate colors, you should leave this setting on "Auto" for this type of content.
Setting this on "Native" when viewing content that was mastered using a narrow Rec.709 Color Space will expand the color gamut but will over-saturate some of the colors (especially the greens and the reds) making them look unnatural.
[However, if you actually enjoy the look of over-saturated colors, then go ahead and set it to "Native". However
, it is important for you to understand that the colors will no longer be accurate.]
When viewing content that can take advantage of an expanded color gamut (UHD HDR content mastered using the wider Rec.2020 Color Space for instance), you should set it to "Native" [see UPDATE below].
UPDATE (August 2016): It appears that, with the latest firmware update (1460.4), the behavior of the "Auto" setting has been fixed and is now properly tracking the wider Rec.2020 Color Space. Therefore, you can now simply leave this setting on "Auto" for both SDR and HDR content.
HDR content contains 'metadata' that will, in most cases, automatically
switch the Color Space to a wider color gamut when this setting is set to "Auto".
[For more on "Color Space" and to learn about "Color Volume" see my post HERE
This setting is used to make more precise adjustments to the color temperature of the picture in order to make white objects look white and the overall picture appear natural.
It changes the overall mixture of colors in an image and is used for "color correction" in order to provide a neutral shade of white and make colors appear pleasing and as accurate as possible. In other words, adjusting the "White Balance" of an image removes unrealistic color casts, so that objects which appear white in person are rendered white on your screen.
The ability of the display to do this all the way from darkest gray to the brightest white is called "Grayscale Tracking", which is just White Balance at multiple levels of image intensity. It has to be purely black or white or a shade of grey in between. This greatly improves your display's ability to not only produce black and white accurately, but every other color in between. If the display can't do this well, then all of the colors will look very unnatural.
In order to properly calibrate your TV’s white balance, you need to optimize the red, green and blue scales at each level of brightness along the black/white spectrum (grayscale). However, these values cannot be accurately adjusted "by eye".
Even the best trained eye cannot determine if the values are near 6500K as our eyes cannot accurately detect differences in the luminance of bright images such as white.
Again, as stated previously, it is not advisable to simply "copy" someone else’s settings off the internet as every TV (even the same model TV), every pair of eyes, and every viewing environment will be different. The reality is, unless you are using a color measuring meter and software, there is really no way for you to objectively know if those "copied" values are actually improving the accuracy of the overall picture, or if they are in fact making it look worse. Again, a meter must be used as our eyes are a horrible tool for measuring luminance and colors.
Therefore, unless you are professionally calibrating your TV, you should leave these adjustments alone. (If it were that simple to get a properly calibrated display, you would not need to pay a professional calibrator hundreds of dollars to come to your home and spend several hours calibrating your display using expensive calibration instruments and software.)
This setting, formally known as "Gamma Correction", adjusts the 'middle level' of luminance and primary color intensity.
Gamma describes the light output by the screen relative to the input video signal. It basically determines the gradation of brightness on your TV - the amount of brightness for any particular level of light specified in the source.
The best way to describe how gamma affects picture quality is that gamma represents the level of brightness difference between each step in the grayscale, or how "fast" blacks get brighter. Gamma affects the steps between the darkest black and the brightest white.
The human eye's sensitivity to changes in luminance is not linear. We are much more sensitive to small changes in luminance at low levels of light than we are at very high levels. In the same way, the gamma luminance response is not linear either (a 20% video is not 20% as bright as 100% video).
For most viewing, a gamma of ~2.2 (bright room) to ~2.4 (dark room) is desirable. Turning down the "Gamma Correction" control (-1 to -3) raises the gamma, while turning it up (+1 to +3) lowers the gamma.
The primary effect of gamma on image quality is with 'shadow detail'. If gamma is set too low (e.g. 2.1), you will achieve great shadow detail but your black levels will be noticeably elevated (they will turn gray) and the image will appear washed out (contrast will suffer and color intensity will decrease). If gamma is set too high (e.g. 2.5), you will create deep, dark blacks (increased contrast and color intensity) but you will lose shadow detail ('crushed blacks').
HDR10 and Dolby Vision both use SMPTE ST-2084 PQ (Perceptual Quantizer) EOTF (Electro-Optical Transfer Function) which is a logarithmic-like curve that replaces the gamma curve in image encoding.
When viewing certain HDR content (e.g. from UHD Blu-rays) you may need to raise the "Gamma Correction" control by couple of points if the picture is too dark and shadow detail is being lost into black ('crushed blacks').
(I have mine set to "0" for non-HDR content.)
"Picture Size" should be set to "16:9" and "Fit to screen" should be set to "ON" (not "Auto") to avoid 'over-scanning' and produced a precise 1:1 pixel map, with no cropping.
'Over-scanning' goes back to the days of CRT TVs when the scan lines that drew the image literally scanned over the edge of the viewable part of the tube. The problem with CRTs was its inability to accurately reproduce images along the edges of the tube, which was a limitation of the technology. So instead the image was over-scanned which resulted in some loss of picture but maintained quality for the center of the image - the part that mattered most.
Unfortunately, 'over-scanning' was carried over to modern TVs. The fact is that even the latest LCD and OLED TVs often don't show all the pixels out of the box. Instead about 3% of them are cropped off the edges and the remaining pixels are scaled/zoomed to fill in all the pixels of your TV.
Fortunately, there is a way to disable 'over-scan' by turning ON the "Fit to screen" option. When an image is displayed properly, it's referred as "1:1 pixel mapping". This simply means that every pixel in the signal is displayed by a single pixel on the display - you get the full image with no cropping.
When viewing HDR content, some of these settings (e.g. "Backlight"; "Contrast"; "Color Space") will, in most cases, automatically
be changed by the "HDR metadata" in order to properly display the content to the fullest capability of your TV. >These
< are my recommended settings when viewing HDR content on this TV.
Once again, as I said at the beginning of this post, many of these picture settings will be a matter of personal preference. In the end, it's your
TV and your
eyes, so adjust it the way you
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