Here's H&E paper (sec 6) citing a 1963 report that says NYC penetration loss is HIGHER for VHF than UHF:http://www.copyright.gov/docs/shvera...r-attach-B.pdf
Note that it mixes antenna height in with penetration loss, so it's hard to separate....
Counterintuitive? Yes. Accurate? Hard to say without access to the actual studies.
Unfortunately, recent studies in Europe have omitted VHF, cuz they apparently don't use it anymore....
Here's an example of current experts citing higher building penetration loss at VHF than UHF:http://www.acrodyne.com/PDF/Portable_Means_Power.pdf
BTW: The free space loss equation was intended to show that it takes much less power at VHF
to provide the same receive signal strength as at UHF. This is the first step in determining
the DIFFERENCES between VHF and UHF, the others being antenna Gain (& VSWR Losses),
Penetration Loss and several others (Foliage Loss, Clutter Loss, et. al.)
FYI: I posted links to (mostly UHF) Indoor Penetration Loss and Antenna Height Gain studies here:http://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...php?p=14035356
There is a more recent report on a very extensive indoor loss (and antenna height)
field test for UHF TV and summarizes results for some Cell Phone frequencies:
"Extensive Penetration Loss Measurements and Models for Different Building Types
for DVB-H in the UHF Band, Plets, Verloock Martens Gauderis & Deventer,
IEEE Trans on Broadcasting, Vol55 No2 Part I of II, June 2009 ":http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/lo...hDecision=-203
Test area was Ghent, Netherlands collecting data on a variety (100 total) of building types.
Results for more modern buildings may be higher due to use of foil wraps and Low-E glass.
For example, "Coated" Office Buildings had 20-25 dB loss on first two floors.
It also has a very useful list of references. Tables III & VI summarize 602 MHz results:
Normal House (aka "Mansion"): 8.2 dB (standard deviation = sigma=3.7 dB).
This is consistent with Apartment results, although with a much higher sigma.
[PS: Table III Total for Apartments is clearly in error.]
Literature average cited for House: 11 dB (sigma= 6 dB).
Penetration Loss decrease with increasing antenna height was also measured.