Yeah they invested a lot in basic science after WWII. They probably had their share of German rocket scientists, like the the US.
I remember seeing an almanac of world universities one time and Moscow State rated high in many basic science disciplines.
So for instance they could design and build high-performance jet fighters but these had little in the way of advanced avionics and long-distance air-to-air weapons.
While their space program achieved a lot, it didn't lead to commercial technology products like the US space program did.
They continued to develop jet and rocket technology but by the late '70s, private American companies were doing a lot with IC design and fabrication processes, which opened the way for all the digital innovation which drives a significant part of the US and global economy.
You hear about tech startups from all over the world but not so much Russia or China, which is good at imitating or stealing IP but not so much innovating something new.