OLED TVs: Technology Advancements Thread - Page 5 - AVS Forum
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post #121 of 10549 Old 04-16-2007, 04:06 PM
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And you can't really have 30" TVs until you have smaller displays, which is why Sony and Samsung SDI are important. Sony's 11" displays, manufactured in tiny quantities such as 1,000 per month, and Samsung SDI which are much smaller in size 2.2" to 7", will whet the public's appetite for this beautiful technology and fuel innovation and investments.
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post #122 of 10549 Old 04-17-2007, 06:48 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by jgreen171 View Post

And you can't really have 30" TVs until you have smaller displays, which is why Sony and Samsung SDI are important. Sony's 11" displays, manufactured in tiny quantities such as 1,000 per month, and Samsung SDI which are much smaller in size 2.2" to 7", will whet the public's appetite for this beautiful technology and fuel innovation and investments.

Yup

In other words, start small but go bigger and better as time passes by.

Go OLED
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post #123 of 10549 Old 04-17-2007, 07:12 AM
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Hmm, maybe they could use OLED to make lightweight 1080p virtual reality helmet TVs. That would give them an interesting little niche until they came in larger sizes.
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post #124 of 10549 Old 04-17-2007, 07:28 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by The Deuce View Post

Hmm, maybe they could use OLED to make lightweight 1080p virtual reality helmet TVs. That would give them an interesting little niche until they came in larger sizes.

I imagine just about any tiny/small screen application under the sun will be a prime candidate for OLED. The more the better, and the sooner the better as we'll begin to see an increase in their screen sizes.
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post #125 of 10549 Old 04-17-2007, 11:01 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by The Deuce View Post

lightweight 1080p virtual reality helmet TVs

skip the helmet, just put an hdmi connector at the base of your skull. Although I'm
not sure anyone's brain stem would be 1.3 compliant yet.
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post #126 of 10549 Old 04-17-2007, 12:43 PM
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I would love a 30" beauty any day of life!
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post #127 of 10549 Old 04-18-2007, 08:05 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by flatpanel View Post

skip the helmet, just put an hdmi connector at the base of your skull. Although I'm
not sure anyone's brain stem would be 1.3 compliant yet.

Ghost in the Shell style?

Nah I think I'll pass (I don't like to put any sort of electronics inside my brain )
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post #128 of 10549 Old 04-19-2007, 04:37 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by rogo View Post

"i'm pro oled and new technology, but am i the only one who thinks that 30" in 2-3 years time is not really something to brag about?"

Well, no, I mean it's profoundly irrelevant from a home-theater perspective to introduce a 30-inch set in 2009 or 2010. It's going to be pricey and LCDs will presumably be awfully good and $500 or so by then at 30 inches.

On the other hand, there won't be 50 and 60-inch and larger OLEDs until someone starts commercially mass producing smaller ones. So in that sense, it's very exciting news >>when<< someone starts shipping a 30-inch TV using OLED technology.

Let's hope this is the real deal.


Rogo, glad to see you back! It's been a couple of months...have you been working on your HT set up? I seem to recall that you were considering a Pearl/flat panel combo. Sorry for the O/T everyone.
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post #129 of 10549 Old 04-19-2007, 06:09 PM
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Personally, I like his post and would also like to see the reply. Some side comments are good.

There are enough "topic police" around.

Reunite Pangea!
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post #130 of 10549 Old 04-24-2007, 02:25 AM
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I wonder if oled tv's will scale down to standard definition well?
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post #131 of 10549 Old 04-26-2007, 06:18 PM
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Everyone in the industry knows that Sony and LG's affiliate companies (LG Electronics and LG Philips LCD) are also licenees of UDC.

UDC, in case anyone is interested, is the single best choice for anyone who wants to invest in the OLED industry.






* Disclosure: I followed my own advice and have a large investment, relatively, in this company.
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post #132 of 10549 Old 04-27-2007, 05:17 AM
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* Disclosure: I followed my own advice and have a large investment, relatively, in this company.

You're a stockowner/shareholder of an OLED company? Cool
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post #133 of 10549 Old 04-28-2007, 01:53 PM
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Well, it was cooler a month and a half ago, when the price per share started shooting from $12 all the way to $18.34 or so. Now it's less cool when the price shrinks from $18.34 down to $16. That's the hard thing about the stock market, it takes a strong stomach.

Still, I believe in the technology in the long term, so I am staying put. Even if the blue phosphorescent materials required for large HDTVs aren't invented for 10 years, there is still plenty of room for profit with smaller screens.



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You're a stockowner/shareholder of an OLED company? Cool

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post #134 of 10549 Old 05-01-2007, 06:02 AM
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The 11-inch display looks amazing <3
I can imagine some people using it as photo displays in their common room or bedrooms instead of lame old photographs :P

LCD and Plasma obsolete in 3-4 years???
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post #135 of 10549 Old 05-01-2007, 12:36 PM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by huMptY DumPty View Post

The 11-inch display looks amazing <3
I can imagine some people using it as photo displays in their common room or bedrooms instead of lame old photographs :P

LCD and Plasma obsolete in 3-4 years???


6-7 is my bet
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post #136 of 10549 Old 05-01-2007, 12:39 PM
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IF they manage to produce proper screen sizes without being ofertaken by laser TVs.

Sorry, but I am amazed at the hype you guys are making over a product which really has nothing to do with HT screens yet. Cellphones maybe. Or small monitors for notebooks. But that's about it.
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post #137 of 10549 Old 05-01-2007, 02:14 PM
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30" would suffice -- especially for a computer monitor. OLED is probably the only technology (other than failure) to get me to let go of a NEC FE1250+ -- outstanding black levels and color fidelity -- things I've come to appreciate in this "Dynamic Contrast Ratio" world.
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post #138 of 10549 Old 05-01-2007, 02:28 PM
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HT, why should we restrict our conversation to technologies that are available now? OLED is an amazing HT technology that will be phenomenally successful in a few years. until that time, i will be happy to have OLEDs in my PDAs, mp3 players, portable DVD players, small laptop displays, etc.
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post #139 of 10549 Old 05-01-2007, 02:44 PM
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No, feel free to hype it but I must say, unless manufacturers actually present a plan as to how and by when they will be able to produce significant quantities in screen sizes, that will actually make a difference and will be able to let the viewer fully appreciate the benefits, this technology is nothing else but a theoretical predecessor to Plasmas and LCD.

It's OK, feel free, but I am still waiting for actually interesting news. Being able to produce a 11" screen is really nothing that could make me become interested and a technology which won't be able to produce a minimum size of interest to me in the next two or three years is just not what I would call a revolution.

Anyhoo, enjoy and I sincerly hope that we will see some major technology advances. I don't cre whether it is OLED or laserTV or whatever gives best PQ.
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post #140 of 10549 Old 05-03-2007, 11:58 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by rogo View Post

"i'm pro oled and new technology, but am i the only one who thinks that 30" in 2-3 years time is not really something to brag about?"

Well, no, I mean it's profoundly irrelevant from a home-theater perspective to introduce a 30-inch set in 2009 or 2010. It's going to be pricey and LCDs will presumably be awfully good and $500 or so by then at 30 inches.

On the other hand, there won't be 50 and 60-inch and larger OLEDs until someone starts commercially mass producing smaller ones. So in that sense, it's very exciting news >>when<< someone starts shipping a 30-inch TV using OLED technology.


True. Tell me when it's comming out in a few monthes, not 6 years.
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post #141 of 10549 Old 05-03-2007, 09:26 PM
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Can you imagine the commercial potential of OLED signs. If you saw Minority Report then you can see how they would be used in malls, buildings and street signs when they become very very cheap to make. (2020 or later I would guess)
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post #142 of 10549 Old 05-04-2007, 10:51 AM
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OLED TV's MAY be available in sizes of 40" and up in 35 years IF they figure an economically viable way to mass produce them. A lot of if's, but the interest would be there as people would love TV's that thin with PQ that amazing.

Another issue is that LCD's and Plasma TV's are just catching on with mainstream America. The average Joe will be happy with an HD LCD TV for the next 10 years. Plus the cable TV industry has to vastly change its' infasructure to actually deliver high quality HD content. OLED's are cool, but if you are watching Time warner cable with their ****** compressed HD feeds, it really doesn't matter.
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post #143 of 10549 Old 05-04-2007, 12:05 PM
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35 years??? I want some of what you are smoking, LOL.

There is massive investment and infrastructure development going for active matrix OLEDs, there is no reason to think that large OLEDs are more than 4-6 years off. And the small displays (2.2" - 4") are so much more attractive than Liquid Crap Displays that they are sparking a lot of interest in all sectors of the display industry.



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Originally Posted by gamelover360 View Post

OLED TV's MAY be available in sizes of 40" and up in 35 years IF they figure an economically viable way to mass produce them. A lot of if's, but the interest would be there as people would love TV's that thin with PQ that amazing.

Another issue is that LCD's and Plasma TV's are just catching on with mainstream America. The average Joe will be happy with an HD LCD TV for the next 10 years. Plus the cable TV industry has to vastly change its' infasructure to actually deliver high quality HD content. OLED's are cool, but if you are watching Time warner cable with their ****** compressed HD feeds, it really doesn't matter.

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post #144 of 10549 Old 05-04-2007, 10:28 PM
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Originally Posted by jgreen171 View Post

35 years??? I want some of what you are smoking, LOL.

There is massive investment and infrastructure development going for active matrix OLEDs, there is no reason to think that large OLEDs are more than 4-6 years off. And the small displays (2.2" - 4") are so much more attractive than Liquid Crap Displays that they are sparking a lot of interest in all sectors of the display industry.


I meant 3-5 years. Woops.
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post #145 of 10549 Old 05-18-2007, 12:12 PM - Thread Starter
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Samsung SDI Develops 0.52mm AMOLED - Mass Production from 2H 2007
17 May 2007































Samsung SDI has developed the world's first 2.2-inch active matrix (AM) organic light emitting diode (OLED), which is only business card-thick (0.52mm). The new super-thin 2.2-inch AM OLED features a one-third thickness of the conventional TFT-LCD modules that are 1.7mm thick.

The new display delivers a resolution of QVGA (240x320), 260,000 colors, a contrast ratio of 10,000:1, and color reproduction of 100%. It is scheduled that the new AM OLED is to be revealed at the SID exhibition to be held from 22 through 24 May in Long Beach, California, U.S.A., along with a 2.6-inch QVGA (240x320) AM OLED and a 2.8-inch LQVGA (240x400) AM OLED.

The Korean company aims to commence mass production from the second half of this year and boost its annual capacity of AM OLEDs from 15 million units this year to more than 100 million units by 2008.
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post #146 of 10549 Old 05-18-2007, 03:38 PM
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Take THAT, SED!

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post #147 of 10549 Old 05-24-2007, 01:47 PM - Thread Starter
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Sony Sees Its Way Clear to Develop Larger OLED Panels for Televisions with New Production Technique
24 May 2007



Conceptual diagram of LIPS



Enhanced productivity with laser units arranged in parallel


On the first day of the SID 2007 symposium, a lecture given by Sony Corp. attracted the largest audience, other than the keynote speech. The place was so crowded that many people had to stand, in spite that the largest hall was prepared. In its lecture, Sony unveiled the production technique of 27.3-inch OLED display panels for use in televisions which was presented at 2007 International CES. The panel features a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1 and a gamut of over 100% NTSC. A TV set incorporating the panel can be extremely thin, i.e. 10 mm in thickness. The announcement is of great significance in that the company sees its way clear to manufacture larger size panels with the adoption of the new production technique. The company also set development policies to enhance production efficiency.

The panel has the top emission structure in which light is emitted to the opposite direction from the TFT formed on the glass substrate. With this structure, it is possible to exclude a sealed glass while assuring a high aperture ratio. In addition, colors can be adjusted by controlling the width of a luminescence material. Sony calls the structure Super Top Emission.

The luminescence material used in the prototype panel is described as the low-molecular type. Sony decided to employ this type of material because it can be applied in a vacuum atmosphere, thereby avoiding water or hydrogen that can cause degradation from being mixed in the material. In general, a low-molecular OLED panel is obtained by defining the film deposition area with a shadow mask, followed by vacuum deposition pattering. This time, the company has employed a laser transfer technology called Laser Induced Pattern wise Sublimation (LIPS) to deposit the luminescence material. A donor substrate is prepared by applying the luminescence material on the entire surface of the glass substrate. Then, the substrate is selectively irradiated with a laser beam so as to form the film deposition areas respectively corresponding to red, green, and blue lights by patterning without using a mask.

With the adoption of this method, degradation in patterning precision resulting from the deformation of the shadow mask, which has been the bottleneck in the production of large size panels, can be prevented. Organic materials such as hole and electron transport materials, which need to be applied on the entire surface of the substrate without patterning, are subjected to deposition as usual. Meanwhile, Sony has also prototyped an 11-inch OLED panel and presented a TV set using it at 2007 International CES. All organic materials used in this panel are applied by deposition.

There is a laser transfer technology known as LITI which is developed by 3M Co. as with the LIPS. Since a luminescence material is transferred in the atmosphere during the LITI process, this technology involves a problem of possible degradation factors being mixed in. In contrast, during the LIPS process, the donor substrate and a substrate formed with TFT are bonded together in a vacuum. Then, a portion called PDL surrounded by exterior walls on the TFT substrate is brought into a vacuum state. In this way, the laser transfer process itself is carried out in the atmosphere while placing the portion with which the material is applied in a vacuum.

In the TFT production process, the company has employed rapid thermal anneal process called diode laser thermal anneal (dLTA) which uses an infrared laser diode to improve crystallinity. As a result, the TFT mobility is enhanced to 5-10 cm2/Vs, thereby increasing the amount of current flowing in the luminescence material and boosting the luminance. Similar method was employed by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea although Samsung called the crystals after annealing "Nanocrystal Si" while they are referred to as "Microcrystal Si" by Sony. As indicated by names, Sony's grain is larger than that of Samsung's. Further details of dLTA were unveiled on May 24, 2007.

Sony used laser units in both luminescence material transfer and TFT annealing processes. The company says that the laser process is a matured, highly reliable technique. It is also possible to increase production throughput by the adoption of a multi-gun setup with laser units arranged in parallel. In fact, the company used the equipment provided with multiple laser units, although the density of alignment is yet to be specified. The wavelength of the laser used is 800 nm.

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Kodak cross licenses OLED technology with CMO and CMEL
24 May 2007

Eastman Kodak, a specialist in organic light emitting diode technology (OLED), recently announced a cross licensing agreement with Chi Mei Optoelectronics (CMO) and Chi Mei EL (CMEL). CMEL plans to incorporate Kodak's active matrix OLED display technology in small panel, mobile displays.

The license, which is royalty bearing to Kodak, enables CMEL to use Kodak technology for active matrix OLED modules in a variety of small- to medium-size display applications such as mobile phones, digital cameras and portable media players. The agreement also enables CMEL to purchase Kodak's patented OLED materials for use in manufacturing displays.

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Worldwide OLED TV Shipments to Surpass 1.1 Million Units in 2012: iSuppli
29 May 2007




According to iSuppli Corp. of the US, worldwide shipments of TVs using organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays will increase at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 170.6% and reach around 1.2 million units in 2012, up from 8,000 units in 2007. Shipment value is expected to reach $690.6 million (USD) in 2012, rising from less than $1 million in 2007.

iSuppli explains interest in OLED TVs has been stimulated by Sony's recent announcement that it will "release an OLED TV by the end of 2007." In response to Sony's announcement, Toshiba Matsushita Display Technology Co., Ltd. also announced a 20.8-inch active matrix OLED panel for TVs.

Active matrix OLED panels are suitable for use in televisions

iSuppli said active matrix OLED panels are suitable for television in many respects. OLED panels feature fast response time, vivid color display, wide viewing angles, high brightness and high contrast ratios. Moreover, since the technology needs no backlight, manufacturers can make a panel slimmer than existing flat panel displays on the market. iSuppli forecasts a 20-inch or larger OLED TV will be launched by 2012. The company also predicts large OLED TVs will be manufactured by applying polymer LED (PLED) materials on the substrate using inkjet printing technique, while small OLED TVs will use vacuum deposition processing technology.

OLED panels are, however, facing challenges such as poor yields, limited lifetimes and pricing that are preventing them from being adopted to TVs. Manufacturers are currently developing process technology for active matrix OLED panels using small 2.0- or 2.4-inch models. Considering there are many challenges even when processing small panels, it takes a longer time to establish a process technology for large panels, iSuppli predicted. Furthermore, inkjet printers that produce 4G substrates for OLED panels are still at a pretest phase.

Based on these circumstances, iSuppli considers the market's first OLED TV is likely to be a compact model for use in the kitchen or bathroom, for example. However, the market for such small OLED TVs is small. iSuppli analyzes a more standard 20-inch or larger OLED TV will be released around 2012 if OLED panel manufacturers continue to invest in the technology. However, manufacturing cost for OLED panels is likely to remain high even at that time with an OLED TV panel costing double the price for an LCD TV panel in 2011, according to iSuppli.

Many rival technologies compete with OLED in the TV industry

Another challenge is OLED has many rival technologies such as CRT, LCD, plasma, SED and FED panels in the TV market, said iSuppli. Most consumers do not give first priority to the display technology when purchasing TVs. They give first priority to image quality and pricing, and second priority to the screen size and the depth of the product. iSuppli warns the many options in TV display technologies may make it difficult for OLED TVs to attract consumers and manufacturers. That is why iSuppli forecasts worldwide OLED TV shipments will fall below 0.5% of 242.7 million-unit overall TV shipments estimated for 2011.

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OLED Displays Break Out of Slump; Units Up 71% and Revenues Up 56% Y/Y; Pioneer Replaces Samsung SDI as Revenue Leader According to DisplaySearch
4 June 2007

DisplaySearch, the worldwide leader in display market research and consulting, revealed in its latest Quarterly OLED Shipment and Forecast Report that Q1'07 OLED shipments were 19.1M, up 71%Y/Y and revenues were $121M, up 56% Y/Y, as the ASP dropped by only 9% Y/Y. Shipments and revenue were down Q/Q, 14% and 13%, respectively, due to seasonality. OLED displays compete with LCDs in small/medium applications such as mobile phone main displays and sub-displays, MP3s, and automotive consoles. The top five suppliers, shown in Table 1, had a market share of 85.4% as the industry continued to consolidate.

Active matrix OLEDs displays continued volume shipments with Samsung SDI, Kodak, Sony and eMagin shipping 335K displays in Q1'07. By Q2'07, the volume is expected to grow to 685K displays. Applications include MP3s, mobile phones and near eye.

Overall, RiTdisplay led in units, with 5.1M closely followed by Pioneer, also at 5.1M, Samsung SDI at 3.7M, LGE at 3.1M and TDK at 1.5M. Univision, which had shut down due to financial problems has restarted production and shipped 900K units in Q1'07 and is expected to grow volume to 1.5M units next quarter, recovering to a leadership position.

Sub-displays and MP3 player displays combined to account for about 87% of shipments at 12.6M and 4.0M, respectively. Of the remaining applications, main displays and industrial applications showed strong growth, but volume remained low as shown in Table 2:

Sub-display volume is very strong in Japan and is the major cause of the growth in the category. Main display growth is primarily due to the Kyocera cell phone which uses the Samsung SDI 2.4" QVGA AMOLED panel. Kodak found a home for its remaining inventory created by the now defunct joint venture with Sanyo.

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Organic LEDs brighten up
4 July 2007



CoFe nanoparticles on substrates


Magnetic nanoparticles could boost the efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by more than 30%, say US researchers.

Jian Shen of the Oak Ridge National Lab and colleagues used the magnetic nanoparticles to dope the structure of a polymer-based organic light-emitting diode (OLED). The technique not only opens up a way to get more light out of an OLED, but also allows the OLED intensity to be controlled by an external magnetic field.

CoFe nanoparticles on substratesA typical polymer-based OLED structure contains three layers: a thin light-emitting layer held between a hole-transport layer and an electron-transport layer. The emissive layer should be thin enough to allow the electrons and holes from the transport layers to meet and recombine.

Shen and colleagues fabricated their device by using an ultrasound method to mix cobalt ferrite (CoFe) nanodots into chloroform solutions of polymers. The researchers spin-cast the CoFe-doped polymers onto a conducting glass substrate to form the OLED. They then measured the electroluminescence intensity of the doped OLED and compared it with that of a non-doped OLED.

The team found that the quantum efficiency of the OLED increased by 27% for an OLED that was doped with 0.1% of nanoparticles - a figure that rose to 32% when an external magnetic field was applied. According to the researchers, these improvements can be attributed to two simultaneous effects: an increase in the number of excitons among the total number of charge carriers, and an increase in the fraction of singlets among the total number of excitons. Singlets are electron-hole pairs with opposite spins, so that the total spin equals zero.

The high efficiency of OLEDs enhanced by doping with CoFe nanoparticles could play an important role in accelerating the commercialization of OLEDs for other applications, such as magnetic-field sensors, explained Shen. Moreover, the magnetic tuneability implies that the new OLED can be controlled via a non-contact method (an external magnetic field).

The researchers are now trying to optimize their process to further enhance the quantum efficiency of the OLED. They will do this by adjusting the doping concentration and also by making more uniform magnetic nanoparticles.

The work was published in Applied Physics Letters.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

New generation of lighter displays to take on LCDs
4 July 2007

TAIPEI/SEOUL (Reuters) - A new generation of super-thin, power-sipping displays is making its way to the market, stretching battery lives to new limits and perhaps one day posing a challenge to heavier, energy-gobbling LCDs.

New screens that glow on their own are taking on their clunkier liquid crystal display rivals -- which require powerful backlighting -- by producing sharper video images for smartphones, game consoles and portable media players.

But industry watchers say it will be years before a clear winner -- if any -- emerges with the clout to outdo LCDs.

Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) and bi-stable technologies are the most likely challengers to LCDs.

An OLED screen uses as much as 40 percent less power than a comparable LCD and could be twice as thin because it does not need backlighting.

These technologies are already being used in some smaller portable devices, such as music players from Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd. and Reigncom Ltd. and a thin mobile phone from Kyocera.

And Sony Corp. plans to sell small-sized TVs using the OLED technology later this year.

"In hand-held devices, display consumes power most. It's all about power and then maybe brightness," said Lehman Brothers analyst James Kim in South Korea.

Analysts reckon Apple's iPhone, which launched in the United States on Friday, may end up using more energy-efficient screens, such as OLED, given the short battery life of its pilot models with LCD screens.

"It makes sense (for Apple) to move to OLED screens. They are working to improve the battery issue," said Kim Woon-ho, an analyst at Prudential Investment & Securities.

"OLED makers have some expectations for Apple's switch, too, although there's no firm plan yet."

Apple was not available for comment.

IN ON THE ACT

The commercial for these new display types has caught the eye of some LCD makers, like Samsung SDI Co. and Sony, given that LCD prices have plunged by a third in the last year.

Samsung SDI is already making OLED screens, while Taiwan's Chi Mei EL Corp. (CMEL) -- an pure OLED maker owned by LCD company Chi Mei Optoelectronics Corp. -- is running at full capacity.

The market for low-power forms of OLED and low power LCD displays is set to grow rapidly, reaching $24 billion in sales by 2012, rising at an annual growth rate of 27 percent from $6 billion in 2007, according to market researcher iSuppli Corp.

Developing new technology is costly, so some LCD producers like LG.Philips LCD Co. Ltd. are improving existing LCDs -- using new power control technology and optical sensors for backlight units.

"LCD companies are working to improve LCD panels," Prudential's Kim said. "It may take years for the (OLED) market to grow if the trend continues."

But some industry experts reckon OLED technology -- which began life powering car radios -- may end up on large televisions.

OLED producers will have to improve the organic material used between the two electrodes which illuminate the screen, and costs will have to come down before OLEDs become widely used in cellphones, PCs and flat-screen TVs.

"The price of an OLED display is 1.7 to 1.8 times higher than that of a LCD and it won't become more competitive until after the price falls sharply," CMEL President Peter Chen said.

A rival to OLED technology are bi-stable displays, which retain images without power, making them suitable for public displays and sub-screens on devices, although bi-stable displays have image quality issues.

Another product is color flexible OLED display. LG.Philips LCD recently unveiled a 4-inch full-color flexible OLED display, although the size is still too small for handheld e-books.

And that's just the beginning. One day, versions of newspapers and magazines that are updated wirelessly might be rolled up or folded, and carried like a piece of paper, for instance.

"That's when we will see real differentiation (with other display technologies)," said Chung Ho-kyoon, Samsung SDI's chief technology officer.

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Novaled reports record green PIN phosphorescent OLED lifetimes and lowest driving voltages
6 July 2007

Novaled recently presented its latest achievements of PIN OLED (organic light-emitting diode) development at IDMC 2007 in Taipei, Taiwan, among of which is strong results in lifetime for green bottom emission PIN OLEDs with more than 200,000 hours at an initial brightness of 1,000 cd/sqm and low driving voltages.

The achievement of a green PIN phosphorescent OLED device in bottom-emission geometry with a CIE of (0.36, 0.61) of above 200,000 hours were attained by combining Universal Display Corporation (UDC)'s high-efficiency PHOLED materials with low-voltage Novaled PIN-OLED technology and doped transport materials, noted Novaled.

Novaled expects that very low driving voltages below 2.6V, already achieved for Ir(ppy)3, can also be obtained for other phosphorescent green emitters, noted Jan Birnstock, vice president of Technology Transfer, Novaled.

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Magnetic doping brightens OLEDs
16 July 2007

PORTLAND, Ore. Efficiency is the name of the game for flat-panel display technologies. This is especially important for extending the battery life of cellphones, digital cameras, personal digital assistants and other portable devices that use organic LED displays.

Now, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) claims it can make OLEDs 30 percent more efficient by doping them with magnetic nanoparticles. As a bonus, the introduction of magnetism into the OLED material enables brightness to be controlled without the addition of electrical contacts.

"What we did was to enhance the lighting efficiency of an OLED by doping the organic polymers with a very low concentration of magnetic nanoparticles," said ORNL senior researcher Jian Shen. "Doping also allows us to control the OLED-s intensity with a magnetic field, whereas conventional OLED intensity is tuned by an electric field, which needs [electrical] contacts."

Conventional OLEDs are nonmagnetic, depending only on electrical fields to create excitons (electron-hole pairs), the recombination of which emits the photons that make an OLED glow. By mixing magnetic nanoparticles into the polymer matrix (at concentrations of less than one-tenth of 1 percent) Shen's team found they could increase OLED efficiency by 27 percent. And by applying an external magnetic field to the doped OLEDs, an additional 5 percent was achieved, for a total increase in efficiency of 32 percent over conventional OLEDs, Shen said.

Light emission in solid-state LEDs occurs when high-energy injected electrons and holes recombine, dropping their energy levels and causing a single photon to be emitted to compensate. An LED with 100 percent efficiency would recombine every single injected electron and hole. In real devices, 100 percent efficiency is never achieved, but by confining them in a small region, designers can achieve the greatest efficiency possible, Shen said.

When electrons and holes pair up, but before they recombine, they are called excitons. Ordinarily, the magnetic spin of each member of an exciton is random, accounting for their variable efficiency in recombining. To increase the efficiency of recombination, Shen's group doped the organic LED's polymer with nanoparticles made magnetic with cobalt and iron (CoFe). In the presence of the magnetic nanoparticles, a larger number of excitons with opposite spins accumulate, called singlet excitons. Oppositely polarized charge carriers are much more likely to recombine, accounting for the higher efficiency of the magnetically doped OLEDs, Shen said.

"The presence of CoFe magnetic nanoparticles enhances the efficiency of electro luminescence, their fluorescence, by increasing the fraction of the so-called singlet excitons among the total excitons," said Shen.

Next, Shen's group will experiment with different doping levels and methods of mixing the magnetic nanoparticles with polymers to achieve ultra uniform concentrations, in hopes of further enhancing efficiency.

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OLEDs Will Be EverywhereEven The Shirt On Your Back
19 July 2007

A self-powered display thin, flexible, and durable enough to be incorporated into clothingis one of the goals of a $1.7 million international research project that aims to bring organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) to the mass market. The research consortium, known as Modecom (for Modeling Electroactive Conjugated Materials at the Multiscale), includes 13 engineering teams from nine universities and two companies.

Over the next three years, the researchers plan to improve the science behind OLEDs, making them powerful, reliable, and efficient enough to be used in an array of business and consumer products. OLEDs are already a part of some portable gadgets, such as mobile phones and MP3 players. But Modecom wants to make it practical for the devices to be used in large-screen applications, such as televisions and computer displays.

Increasing the size of OLEDs would also open the door to cutting-edge applications, like clothing-based displays, next-generation lighting systems, and portable solar power panels, explains project coordinator Alison Walker, a senior lecturer in the physics department at England's University of Bath (Fig. 1).

The biggest problem with current OLEDs is reliability. Gadget-sized OLEDs work well enough, but larger versions designed for use in TVs and desktop displaystend to fail quickly, often within months. Walker says the consortium is aiming for an improved understanding of how OLEDs work, which will aid in the design of longer lasting OLEDs.

"We are trying to link how they are made with how they perform, a very ambitious task but one in which we expect at least partial success," she says.

Modecom is focusing on two specific types of OLEDs: small molecule devices, developed in the U.S. and Japan by firms including DuPont subsidiary Uniax, and polymer OLEDs (P-OLEDs), pioneered in Europe by Cambridge Display Technology, a Modecom partner, Philips, and several other firms (Fig. 2).

"Small molecule OLED devices are further [along] in development, but are more expensive to make as they can not be made by inkjet printing," Walker says. She also predicts that large OLEDs will reach the market in less than five years.

At that point, she expects clothing vendors to weave OLED strips, running off of solar power, into garments. The strips could change color at the press of button or be used to display electronic messages. "They are cheap to make, are flexible, are bright," Walker says. "Polymers are inherently compatible with clothing, unlike their competitors in the display market such as liquid crystal displays."

Walker expects OLEDs to begin replacing incandescent, fluorescent, and even conventional LED lights within the same five years and to someday become the leading artificial lighting technology.

Walker notes that Modecom's molecular- and device-level research will also help expand the understanding of polymer materials used in plastic electronics for applications such as electronic paper and intelligent labels (Fig. 3). "OLEDs would not have advanced to their present stage, nor would have any hope of getting further, unless the science is understood," she says.

John Edwards

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Normal-size phones set for fuel cells and touchscreens
19 July 2007


The Wireless Japan exhibition near Tokyo this week has seen plenty of demonstrations of existing and future technologies, but there's one that we're still not sure how to categorize - fuel cells.



As well as the DMFC gear, Toshiba displayed some very thin screens it has developed with Matsushita for use in phones and similar devices. These range from 2.4 to 2.8in and are just 0.99mm thick.

The OLED displays offer WQVGA resolution of 432 x 240 pixels and employ circuitry built into the glass and are all touch-sensitive. This is achieved without a touch-panel module by using an optical sensor to follow the shadow a finger makes onscreen.

Given the current trend towards touch-sensitivity in larger-screened devices, it's clearly only a matter of time before even smaller phones and PDAs sport the technology. Toshiba Matsushita hasn't specified a date for mass production.

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LG Electronics Moves into AM OLED Mass Production
20 July 2007

At its IR session for the second quarter, LG Electronics said that it has moved into mass production of active matrix (AM) organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), which are emerging as the next-generation display. On the other hand, the Korean giant will also phase out the production of the conventional passive matrix (PM) OLEDs. The company started volume production of AM OLED panels at Plant E, Gumi, North Gyeongsang province, and will soon launch two to three new mobile phones incorporating its AMOLED panels. In addition, the Korean vendor is also in close talks with LG.Philips LCD for the AM OLED business direction such as production of AM OLED panels using LG.Philips LCD's fourth-generation low temperature poly-silicon (LTPS) LCD glass substrates.

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Sony rolls out OLED prototype for Aussie retailers
26 July 2007

SYDNEY: For the first time in Australia, Sony is showing off working samples of its OLED flat panel TV at the Sony Experience More trade show, giving retailers a window into the future of the brand's flat panel TV business.

Sony made a big splash at CES in Las Vegas earlier this year when it demonstrated two working OLED TV samples, and the company has again rolled out the cutting-edge technology to wow Australian retailers at its trade-only event being held in Sydney this week.

Sony is making no secret of its desire to see OLED one day replace LCD as its premium flat screen technology, with the brand's prototype OLEDs already reaching 27 inches and boasting a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1.

We consider OLED as the most powerful technology for future displays, such as TV, said Sony Australia senior product manager - visual displays, Graham Keogh.

Key features, such as its slimness, high contrast, high brightness level and quick response time will be fully maximised and adopted in products.

Sony's OLED display comprises Super Top Emission technology, which according to the company generates even better levels of brightness and high-resolution. The ultra-slim display is just 3mm thick at its slimmest part.

OLED offers significant picture quality advantages over both LCD and plasma flat panel displays, and is already being incorporated into portable devices including mobile phones and mp3 players because of its low power consumption.

According to Samsung, OLED is likely to be introduced in the PC monitor market first before making its way through to big-screen TVs.

Companies not typically associated with displays are also working on OLED, including Kodak and Hewlett Packard - such is the variety of products that will one day incorporate OLED displays.

Sony said earlier this year it plans to release the first 11-inch OLED television in Japan in the fourth quarter 2007.

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Sumitomo Chemical Company to Acquire Cambridge Display Technology for $12 Per Share
31 July 2007

TOKYO and CAMBRIDGE, United Kingdom, July 31, 2007 (PRIME NEWSWIRE) -- Sumitomo Chemical Company (Sumitomo Chemical) and Cambridge Display Technology (Nasdaq:OLED) (CDT) today jointly announced that they have entered into a definitive merger agreement whereby Sumitomo Chemical will acquire CDT, a developer of technologies based on polymer organic light emitting diodes (P-OLEDs). Under the merger agreement, Sumitomo Chemical will acquire all outstanding shares of CDT common stock at a price of $12 per share in cash, for an aggregate purchase price of approximately $285 million. The merger consideration represents a 107 percent premium over CDT's 90-day average closing share price and a 95 percent premium over CDT's closing share price of $6.15 on July 30.

In connection with the merger agreement, Kelso and Company and certain of its affiliates and certain members of CDT's senior management, holding in the aggregate approximately 43% of the outstanding shares of common stock of CDT, have entered into several agreements with Sumitomo Chemical under which they have agreed to vote all of their shares of CDT common stock in favor of the transaction.

David Fyfe, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of CDT, said: "I am delighted to recommend this merger to our stockholders, as is the entire board of directors. I believe that the acquisition of CDT by Sumitomo Chemical will significantly enhance the prospects for P-OLED technology adoption, especially as P-OLED is looking ever more likely to become the next mainstream display technology. CDT and Sumitomo Chemical have developed a more integrated and closer relationship since Sumitomo acquired a license to certain IP from CDT in 2001, culminating in the formation of a 50/50 joint venture in 2005 to develop, manufacture and sell P-OLED materials to CDT licensees and others. We have admired the long term commitment of Sumitomo Chemical to the development of this very important technology and believe this merger is not only in the best interest of our shareholders but also of our employees and the global display industry."

Hiromasa Yonekura, President of Sumitomo Chemical, said: "In recent years, Sumitomo Chemical has positioned its display materials business as one of its strategically important business areas and an area of focus for our business resources. OLEDs are expected to see considerable market growth in the future as next-generation materials for flat panel displays and lighting applications, and our company is actively engaged in the development of new materials and the improvement of device technologies. We have built a close cooperative relationship with CDT up to this point, and the complete integration of both companies' technological and intellectual assets through this acquisition will make it possible to greatly accelerate development. We are very grateful for the support of the CDT board of directors and major shareholders, and I am pleased to extend a warm welcome to all our colleagues at CDT on behalf of Sumitomo Chemical."

Completion of the merger is subject to CDT stockholder approval and other customary closing conditions. The acquisition is expected to close during the third or fourth quarter of 2007.

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Still waiting for OLED TVs
21 August 2007

OLED televisions are going to be a boon for picture quality and energy efficiency--someday, if you can afford them.

We've been hearing about the potential for OLED (organic light-emitting diode) TVs for several years now and Sony, Samsung and Seiko Epson have demonstrated the ability to make a prototype OLED panel.

So when will TV manufacturers actually start selling OLED TVs and, more importantly, will those TVs cost way too much for the average consumer? So far, Sony has indicated that it will be the first out of the gate with an OLED TV sometime next year, and the panels will likely be small, in the range of 11 to 27 inches wide. No one is saying how much it will cost, but some pundits think that little TV could cost somewhere between $800 and $1,000. Toshiba is expected to start selling 30-inch OLEDs in 2009.

"OLED TVs at the moment essentially don't exist," said Lawrence Gasman, principal analyst at Nano Markets. "If you go to an (industry) conference you'll see some beautiful prototypes, which are very impressive, but you can't actually buy one yet."

There's another problem: unlike LCD (liquid crystal display) and plasma, which were completely new display technologies compared with cathode ray tubes when they first debuted, OLED TVs are a variation on the ingredients and manufacturing process used to make LCD panels. The fact that it's not a drastically new technology could mean a more difficult time gaining a foothold with consumers, particularly when the price for a new OLED TV will be so high, at least initially.

"Any tech coming into the TV market now has to be many steps ahead of where existing plasma and LCDs are at. The technology has to be substantially better and (have) comparable prices," said Riddhi Patel, an analyst with iSuppli. And right now, that's simply not the case.

Another major issue that's holding up OLED TVs is the reliability factor. It's "fair" to consider that organic materials used in OLEDs need further advances to be realistic for the TV market, said Janice Mahon, vice president of technology commercialization for Universal Display, an OLED research company. The OLEDs currently used in cell phone displays are lasting 5,000 to 10,000 hours while TV manufacturers generally need OLEDs that won't peter out until 30,000 to 50,000 hours of use.

Nonetheless, the market for OLED TVs could be big. According to a forecast by Nano Markets, the OLED TV market should be worth about $42 million in 2008, $436 million in 2009, and $1.2 billion by 2010.

That leaves time for OLED companies like Universal Display and Cambridge Display Technology to tinker with manufacturing processes and dream up more innovative ways to use smaller OLED screens, such as in flexible displays. This technology is being deployed in some cell phones and portable media players.

The key to OLED TVs is the series of thin organic films that give off light when an electrical current is applied. TVs can be simpler to make with OLEDs than LCD panels mainly because there are fewer parts in OLED TVs. Specifically, there's no back light, which makes OLED TVs potentially thinner and able to reduce the power consumption of the display by a factor of four, according to Universal Display, which works on several different OLED technologies.

There are other issues, of course. One of the biggest is differential aging, meaning the red, green and blue diodes degrade at different rates, which results in a distorted picture. But that's changing.

"Over the past two years this problem has begun to disappear as the result of technical improvements in OLEDs," said Gasman of Nano Markets. "Cambridge Display has, for example, announced that it has achieved lifetimes of 80,000 hours for blue OLEDs and blue polymers for OLEDs with 100,000 hours of life."

The manufacturing process is also experiencing growing pains. Right now, OLED manufacturers can produce a sizable amount of smaller displays for cell phones, but increasing the glass size at large volumes necessary for TVs could be a challenge--but one that could be solved, said Mahon of Universal Display. "It's no different for what's had to be done for LCD and plasma panels. It's simply part of the maturation of a technology."

And then there's price. Considering the rate at which LCD television prices are falling, which is making high-definition viewing accessible to a larger subset of consumers, OLEDs will be far out of the price range of the average TV shopper whenever they do land on store shelves.

To put it bluntly, "Right now OLED cannot come in at a competitive price," said iSuppli's Patel. "We are anticipating OLEDs by the end of this year from Sony, an 11-inch for $800 to $1,000. For a $1,000, you can get a 40-inch plasma."

Plus there's a choice that major LCD manufacturers have to make: they're right in the thick of a battle over LCD market share. LCD is a technology that many consumers are only recently embracing, so it could make less sense for some to spend resources on something like OLED.

At some point, when parts become more plentiful and manufacturing efficiency increases, OLEDs will likely be cheaper to produce than LCDs. But that point could still be a few years off. "An OLED may cost 60 to 70 percent of a comparable LCD. Intrinsically, there will be a cost advantage in making an OLED (TV)," Mahon said. "The question is how quickly (they'll get there)."

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Cambridge Display Technology and Sumation Announce Further Improved Performance of Green and Red P-OLED Materials
28 August 2007

CAMBRIDGE, England, Aug. 27, 2007 (PRIME NEWSWIRE) -- Cambridge Display Technology (CDT) (Nasdaq:OLED) and Sumation(r) are pleased to announce substantially improved lifetime data for green and red P-OLED materials.

Data from spin coated devices using a common cathode and interlayer material demonstrate lifetimes(1) for recently developed solution-processable green and red P-OLED materials of 78,000 hours and 67,000 hours, respectively, from an initial luminance of 1000 candelas per square meter, or cd/m2. This is equivalent(2) to approximately 445,000 hours and 420,000 hours from an operating brightness of 400cd/m2 for these materials. These latest lifetimes represent a 60% and 280% increase in performance for green and red materials over results that were announced in May and March of this year, respectively.

Chief Executive Officer of CDT, Dr. David Fyfe commented, "Once again, we are reporting tremendous progress on materials developed at Sumation and tested at CDT's facilities. Rapid material development continues unabated and is a testament to the excellent collaboration between Sumation's research centers in the U.K. and Japan."

President and Chief Executive Officer of Sumation, Susumu Miyazaki added, "We continue to make rapid progress on all colors and these results are the latest in a series of accomplishments that we anticipate will continue for the foreseeable future."

Notes to editors:

1) When 'lifetime' is discussed here, it refers to the time taken for the display/pixel to fall to half its initial stated luminance. Lifetime estimates are based on accelerated testing of simple test devices at several very high initial luminance levels, and use of these data to calculate predicted lifetimes at lower brightness levels. Translation of this single pixel data into performance in a full color display system depends on a number of factors and requires a complex calculation and knowledge of the precise system design parameters such as aperture ratio, brightness, ink formulation and relative pixel areas.

2) Acceleration factors to convert lifetime from one brightness to another have been determined for green and red materials using various initial luminances between 6000 cd/m2 and 800 cd/m2 and found to be equal to 1.9 for green and 2 for red. These acceleration factors were used to predict lifetimes at 400 cd/m2. It should be noted that due to the long lifetimes at 400 cd/m2, lifetime predictions at this brightness are susceptible to greater errors than the lifetimes quoted at 1,000 cd/m2
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OLED technology to make minor inroads into TV market

OLED (organic light-emitting diode) display technology is set to make minor inroads into the TV market during the next few years, iSuppli predicts.

Now mainly relegated to handset displays, OLED TV shipments will rise at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 170.6% to reach 1.2 million units in 2012, up from 8,000 in 2007. Sales revenue for OLED TVs will increase to US$691 million in 2012, rising from less than US$1 million in 2007, iSuppli forecasts.

Sony spurs OLED TV talk

"Interest in OLED TVs has been stimulated by Sony's recent announcement that it will offer a product using the technology by the end of the year," said Vinita Jakhanwal, principal analyst for mobile displays at iSuppli. "Sony cited OLEDs' ultra-thin form factor and higher contrast and richer colors compared to conventional LCD TVs."

In response to Sony's announcement, Toshiba Matsushita Display (TMDisplay), the display arm of the con*sumer-electronics giant Matsushita, also announced acceler*ated availability of 20.8-inch active-natrix OLED (AM OLED) panels for OLED TVs, Jakhanwal added.

TV suitability

Indeed, AM OLED technology is suitable for TV in many regards, iSuppli believes. OLEDs offer fast response time, good color, high brightness, excellent viewing angles and high contrast ratios. Furthermore, OLEDs don't need backlights, making them potentially thinner than the alternative flat-panel technologies on the market.

Moreover, the resolutions needed in the TV market are attainable with OLEDs. OLED TVs in larger sizes, i.e. greater than 20-inches, could be sold by the 2012 timeframe. Most likely, these TVs will use polymer panels made by inkjet printing in the largest sizes, but small-molecule OLEDs made by evaporation techniques also could be used in TVs.

However, there are shortcomings to OLED technology that will prevent wider adoption in the TV market. The main challenges are poor manufacturing yields, limited lifetimes and pricing.

OLEDs get active


Manufacturing processes for AM OLEDs now are being tested for small sizes like two and 2.4 inches. Manufacturing these small-sized panels is proving to be a challenge. Producing AM OLEDs in larger sizes will be an even greater challenge. More time is needed to establish manufacturing processes for large panels, and to build equipment that can make such panels efficiently. Inkjet printers for fourth-generation (4G) substrates are still in the beta-testing phase.

Thus, it is likely that the first OLED TVs will be small and designed for novel locations such as kitchens or bathrooms. The total available market for this sort of TV is small.

Later, as technical and manufacturing capabilities grow, OLEDs may move into more standard-size TVs at dimensions of 20 inches or larger. This will happen near the end of the forecast, but only with continued investments and commitments from major polymer OLED suppliers.

Due to high manufacturing costs, AM OLEDs are expected to be considerably more expensive than LCD panels for the foreseeable future. OLED TV panels are expected to be twice as expensive as LCD TV panels in 2011.

Crowded market

Another challenge for OLEDs in the television market is the large number of competitive technologies vying for a share of sales. The TV market already is flooded with options: CRT, LCD, PDP (plasma display panel), four types of projection systems and the potential for a variety of novel technologies like surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED) and carbon-nanotube field emission display (FED).

Consumers, for the most part, do not care about particular technologies. Instead they tend to look only at the picture quality and the price, and secondarily at the size and depth. This may make it difficult for OLEDs to gain consumer awareness.

The plethora of technologies also may make it hard for OLED TV to attract the attention of end-product OEMs and channel vendors.

Because of this, OLED will be limited to less than half of 1% of the 242.7 million unit worldwide TV market in 2011, according to iSuppli.
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OLED was touted as being a cheaper and thinner alternative to LCD and plasma. If it is more expensive than either, then who needs it? Rear projection is getting better and better and cheaper and cheaper. Is it that much of a problem to have a TV that is 10" deep? That is where RPTVs are headed, with lifespans of 30,000 hours and more. Plasma keeps getting better and cheaper. There is hardly a need for SED or OLED. I would not invest in these new technologies.

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OLED will get both bigger and cheaper, and at some point may be a very worthy competitor for LCD and PDP if they can break through the 40" barrier.

Believe it or not, it IS "...that much a problem to have a TV that is 10" deep...", particularly in markets outside North America where RPTV has never really taken off. Yes, people in Europe dealt with deep CRT, but never adopted RPTV due to overall size of the cabinet, among other things. As flat panel displays come down in price as they go up in size, RPTV is eventually an endagerred species outside of specialty products and markets.
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