I have seen the movie twice and I wondered about the blood transfusion as well. I think they have transferred some of the blood from the doctor to the corpsein the body bag that was taken inside.
As far as the second question - very good question! What he was told by the doctor was that he did not have any meniscus left in his knees. He also mentioned problems with his shoulders (and perhaps even eblows) and trauma to the brain.
Bruce seemed to have a pretty miraculous recovery after getting his back pummeled by Bane didn't he? He went from walking with a cane, to putting on some device to help him walk, to being completely bed ridden and virtibrae protruding out of his back, to being completely upright (doing pushups and scaling a well wall no less than three times).
WTB: Gently used Trinnov Altitude 16-24 or 16-32. WTB: Gently used JVC DLA-RS4500 or Sony 5000ES