So, I've done as much trouble shooting as I can. I have used my old sub to test everything. I know the receiver is sending out a signal, I used the same wiring for everything and it is sending a signal. I have checked every connection twice and everything is correct. When I crank up the volume from the receiver, it will power the sub, so the sub is working.
Through the process of elimination, the only thing that it can be is the amp. It is passing signal through, but it is not being amplified. It must be an internal defect or a setting on the amp that is causing it to skip the amplification and run in some type of "safe" or "bypass" mode.
Any other thoughts? Looking at the specs for the receiver, amp, and sub, do you experts see any incompatibilities?