$500 + modern + glass & metal = IKEA.
Solid wood framed cabinets with veneered plywood panels will run you $3000+, the little ones I looked at anyways, so you're stuck with "engineered wood" at your price point.
I have the same type of construction and it's a PIA. I used 1/4"x 4" tapcons to hang Ikea Besta cabinets full of albums and the TV hanger they have for my old 40", 50lb Brevia monitor. The 5/16" are fine as long as you get at least an 1" of concrete bite, but more bite the better.
Aligned with what is horizontal around the corner... P.E. thinking here.Haven't seen Norm on TV for a while, but here's one for you: http://www.diynetwork.com/how-to/how-to-build-a-concrete-countertop/index.html
NICE shop space! And the theater is alright too ;-) Have you thought of concrete counter tops to match the floor instead of the granite? Although if I had your woodworking skills that bar top would be a nice slab of wood.
The living room, kitchen, laundry, spare bath, and Wifeys loft are done. My loft is next. Finished demo and I have a plan. Drywall patching to do, paint, and new carpet is already waiting in the garage. First pic in post 6 shows the before, the closet wall on the left came out and gave me an extra 40 sq. ft. The low back wall of the now abandoned closet is 32" high, the right wall is 11'-0+.
Moar Ikea Besta preview:
Here's your 4" extension: http://www.ikea.com/us/en/catalog/products/20038506/
If you feel you need more depth, rip a couple of doors down to the size you want.
You'll also need a hand full of L brackets and flat plates strategically placed, and a tube of cedar caulk if the joints look a bit rough.
I'm doing my den in Besta medium brown and have been looking for "real" pictures of it, Thanks.