Here's what I'm considering so far - any input would be much appreciated:
Rega Fono Mini
Not so reasonable. Most stereo receivers have built in phono stages. This one might well be better, but it's not better enough to justify devoting almost 15% of your system budget to it. If the receiver you wind up choosing doesn't have one, $50 or so will buy you a decent basic model.
??? (really not sure what to look for here, want to stay under $200)
Look at the Onkyo TX-8255.
Focal Chorus 705v
OK, but have you considered either towers or a 2.1 system?
A good general guideline is to put most of your budget into speakers. That's a little trickier when you've got a turntable in the mix, but the P1 and the Onkyo receiver I mentioned will run you a bit over $600, leaving you $700 for speakers.