The reason why it won't work the way you did it is because the headphone jack on your receiver is an output for you to plug your headphones. It is not an input. This is what you need to do. Make sure you take copious notes. Read them over at least ten times and make sure you understand them before proceeding. They are VERY complex. Plan on giving yourself at least a five minute window to get this going after you've acquired all the parts.
1. Get a mini-stereo plug to RCA adapter cable.
Optional: Obtain beverage(s) and snack(s) of your choice
2. Plug the mini-stereo plug end to you phone's headphone jack and the other end to one of your receiver's RCA inputs in the back.
3. Change the input selector on your receiver to where you plugged you cables in.
4. Adjust volume on receiver and/or phone.
5. Sit back, relax and enjoy your music (consume beverages and snacks from step 1 if option was exercised).