Most of the 1950's concepts were wheel-shaped:
This was vonBraun's concept of assembly in space using rocket-boosted wheel segments (1938):
Werner vonBraun's finished product:
The iconic image from 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968):
What the early writers missed was the reason we go into space.
For them, it was grand adventure, exploration, and (sorry but the obvious rocket imagery is a piece of male anatomy) fecundating the universe with human beings.
It turns out that what we actually want to do in space is manufacture unique materials like Buckyballs and semiconductor crystals - stuff that can only be made efficiently in microgravity environments. The principle of centrifugal force substituting for gravity was confirmed in an early Gemini mission, when a Gemini space capsule rendezvoused with an Agena booster, connected a cable, and spun a merry dance to create about 0.25 gravities. Then we never bothered to do so again, because we discovered that humans can tolerate months in microgravity.
The modern image of a large space habitat is an O'Neill cylinder, approximately 30km long:
The ultralarge colony would be a Dyson Sphere (See ST:TNG, Episode "Relics") or perhaps the RingWorld:
...I am hoping that (since it is obviously a "Hard SF" tale) that they took care and used some real technical advisors from NASA or someplace. I am tired of dimly-glimpsed, shoddy-designed mechanisms, al la Transformers
or Pacific Rim
or the Total Recall