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Whites? - Page 3

post #61 of 141
Sounds like your gamma is much too high, numerically (like 2.6 instead of 2.2 or 2.3. But you cannot know that without a meter and software to measure the video display. Once you measure the video display, all the guess-work is gone. You know what your gamma is, you know what is good and bad about your grayscale, and you know what is good and bad about the color. Some TVs have Gamma settings, some don't. But even if the TV has no gamma setting, a calibrator who knows what he is doing can at least improve gamma if not make it quite good.

If you do not understand gamma (what it is, what it does to images, and why we have it), that would be a good place to begin studying. Without knowing this stuff, you are just blindly changing settings without really understanding what you are doing... that rarely leads to anything constructive.
post #62 of 141
Thread Starter 
I know what gamma is...I changed it from movie too standard mode and it looks better.Its brighter,less washed out,and more colorful(more red and specifically in the white areas which is good).

Looks like I may have reduced the torchwhites.Have too watch it some more to know.Again,I prefer a soft,bright,colorfull, cartoon like image.


EDIT Forgot to put white balance and color tone the same on standard as I had on movie.The only difference i see is standard is more colorful,not as dull.
Edited by Vic12345 - 6/5/13 at 3:14am
post #63 of 141
Except on Samsung TVs, Movie mode is considerably more accurate than Standard mode, though you can certainly mess up Movie mode royally using User Menu controls. Many Samsung models have a Gamma control in the User Menu... but the settings aren't accurate... meaning if you select 2.2 from the Gamma setting menu, you won't really get 2.2. You have to measure each setting to determine what the proper setting is (the one closest to 2.25 over as much of the grayscale as possible). A very high Gamma will make shadows go on forever, make midtones much darker than they should be, and spread out much of the difference between light and dark within the 70%-100% range which exaggerates level differences in the highlights.

The description of your "preference" for how video images should look indicates you are not interested in accurate video images -- or perhaps do not understand that there IS a video standard that defines some of the parameters that allow video displays to be fairly accurate in the images they display... at least they can be made more accurate than they are when they come out of the box or when someone tries to set them up by eye.

Since calibration is about making video displays as accurate as possible, perhaps this area of AVS is not your cup of tea. While we are a pretty easy going bunch here, we aren't much interested in images that are soft, bright, colorful, and cartoon-like. We are all here because we are interested in the most accurate images the video display can make because we want to see the movie we are watching the way the director and cinematographer intended it to appear. For us, making Alien, Blade Runner, 2001,The Dark Knight, or Game of Thrones look anything but accurate is just playing around. And we're past that stage. We want to see what the director and cinematographer want us to see. And besides that, modern "cartoons" are sharp as all get out... absolutely pin-sharp. They also have very pronounced contrast between luminance levels and colors and that further serves to make the images look sharp (Cars, Robots, Up, etc.). Making those movies look "soft" is really a move in the wrong direction.
post #64 of 141
A good analogy would be hifi, where the use of a loudness button boosts the bass and treble to a point where the system sounds good in a department store. However, this inaccurate sound can start to be fatiguing with speech having an unnatural booming bass sound. Likewise, a cartoonish image may initially look good, but you will soon tire of it. I know you will as you have some interest in pq, otherwiseyou wouldn't be on this forum. Most users of loudness controls would have no interest in sound quality. You will probably not get any further advice here, as your requirements are very different from what is trying to be acheived in this forum. Your best bet is to make the most of what you got and read more about the subject. All the best!
post #65 of 141
Thread Starter 
In what way/s is movie mode more accurate than standard mode?

I don't Iike when everything is pitch black and torch white ,no midtones,and dim color.Its like watching a black and white checkerboard.The abl is going too wash out the picture anyway.Why not wash everything out.At least you can see it better.
Edited by Vic12345 - 6/5/13 at 3:57pm
post #66 of 141
The fact that you're asking that question (in what ways is Movie mode more accurate than Standard mode) indicates you still have a lot to learn about calibration. The primary "determiners" are grayscale, gamma, and color space (color management system, CMS, controls allow you to "tune" the color space to be more accurate, but it has to be done with a meter and software).

All of those things are better in Movie mode than they are in Standard mode if you haven't whacked Movie mode with a bunch of inappropriate settings. Standard mode tends to have too much sharpening, over saturated colors (which makes every color inaccurate), images that are overall too blue, and a host of other processing that is not applied to the images in Movie mode.
post #67 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Vic12345 View Post

In what way/s is movie mode more accurate than standard mode?

I don't Iike when everything is pitch black and torch white ,no midtones,and dim color.Its like watching a black and white checkerboard.The abl is going too wash out the picture anyway.Why not wash evething out.At least you can see it better.

The color luminance and accuracy is closer to the Rect 709 standard, , meaning there is less of an error in the primaries to the ideal xy color cordinates and it's luminance or brightness.. The warm 2 color tone is closer to the D65 white point. The gamma is closer to being accurate. The Movie Mode for samsung plasmas has a better starting point to where you will end up which is a calibrated picture with a proper white balance that is a specific white point of 313x 329y using a accurate meter. There is less steps involved when using a meter to get it to where the image is accurate.

Standard picture mode is usually way too blue and sometimes too dim. This effects all the colors , there is greater error in them from the ideal color space coordinates as well the brightness is off. Too much blue in the shadows, gamma being too low, crushing shadow details etc. It is not considered a good starting point. The color temperature needs more tuning to bring it close to the ideal white point. Since for example it is too blue throughout the greyscale range. This is just one of the things wrong with this mode not being closer to accurate.
post #68 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Doug Blackburn View Post

The fact that you're asking that question (in what ways is Movie mode more accurate than Standard mode) indicates you still have a lot to learn about calibration. The primary "determiners" are grayscale, gamma, and color space (color management system, CMS, controls allow you to "tune" the color space to be more accurate, but it has to be done with a meter and software).

All of those things are better in Movie mode than they are in Standard mode if you haven't whacked Movie mode with a bunch of inappropriate settings. Standard mode tends to have too much sharpening, over saturated colors (which makes every color inaccurate), images that are overall too blue, and a host of other processing that is not applied to the images in Movie mode.

It's worth mentioning this may no longer be (completely) true. On my EH series Samsung LED-LCD, Standard mode can be calibrated to the exact same result as Movie mode in terms of grayscale/gamma/gamut (but you'll need to make more changes from defaults like lowering contrast and color controls further and turning off any crap in the advanced picture settings menu... and choosing the right color space (Auto or Custom instead of Native) and the right color temp preset (Warm2 or Warm1 instead of Standard). Once Standard pic mode is calibrated to match Movie pic mode, the only difference on my EH series I've seen is that Standard uses auto-dimming in dark scenes whereas Movie does not.
post #69 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by PlasmaPZ80U View Post

It's worth mentioning this may no longer be (completely) true. On my EH series Samsung LED-LCD, Standard mode can be calibrated to the exact same result as Movie mode in terms of grayscale/gamma/gamut (but you'll need to make more changes from defaults like lowering contrast and color controls further and turning off any crap in the advanced picture settings menu... and choosing the right color space (Auto or Custom instead of Native) and the right color temp preset (Warm2 or Warm1 instead of Standard). Once Standard pic mode is calibrated to match Movie pic mode, the only difference on my EH series I've seen is that Standard uses auto-dimming in dark scenes whereas Movie does not.
I have observed the same thing on my edge lit Samsung ES8000. In standard mode I am unable to disable the "microdimming" so I used full fields to calibrate. Even without 10pt adjustment available I was able to get results that at least by the numbers are just as good as anything I achieved in Movie mode.

I do agree re: the comment on sharpening though. On the ES8000 if you put the TV into "store demo" mode there is an option to demo "microdimming ultimate" where it shows a split-screen buildup of the 3 stages it goes through to achieve the effect. The third stage definitely adds an undefeatable amount of sharpening to the picture.

Here's the results if anyone cares to see: 5/20/2013 standard mode calibration charts (Click to show)










post #70 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by 10k View Post

I have observed the same thing on my edge lit Samsung ES8000. In standard mode I am unable to disable the "microdimming" so I used full fields to calibrate. Even without 10pt adjustment available I was able to get results that at least by the numbers are just as good as anything I achieved in Movie mode.

I do agree re: the comment on sharpening though. On the ES8000 if you put the TV into "store demo" mode there is an option to demo "microdimming ultimate" where it shows a split-screen buildup of the 3 stages it goes through to achieve the effect. The third stage definitely adds an undefeatable amount of sharpening to the picture.

Here's the results if anyone cares to see: 5/20/2013 standard mode calibration charts (Click to show)











mine is a more basic model and lacks the micro-dimming/micro-dimming ultimate... which is why the sharpness once set correctly (zero in my case) is the same for movie and standard... I also don't have the 10-pt white balance in any pic mode (even movie).
post #71 of 141
Thread Starter 
Its a relief too have finally figured out what settings work best on this tv.Can't believe it took this long.Thanks for all the replies.
post #72 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by PlasmaPZ80U View Post

It's worth mentioning this may no longer be (completely) true. On my EH series Samsung LED-LCD, Standard mode can be calibrated to the exact same result as Movie mode in terms of grayscale/gamma/gamut (but you'll need to make more changes from defaults like lowering contrast and color controls further and turning off any crap in the advanced picture settings menu... and choosing the right color space (Auto or Custom instead of Native) and the right color temp preset (Warm2 or Warm1 instead of Standard). Once Standard pic mode is calibrated to match Movie pic mode, the only difference on my EH series I've seen is that Standard uses auto-dimming in dark scenes whereas Movie does not.

Yes, you can CALIBRATE Standard mode to be accurate, but using factory default settings and having no calibration gear, Standard mode is less accurate than Movie mode. That's the point I was making in my post. In the past, Standard mode disabled the 2 warmest color temp settings so you couldn't select them sticking you with images that were blue-er than ideal. If that has changed, that would be one less thing to be worried about if using Standard mode. However, Standard mode still uses proprietary imaging processing that Samsung feels gives it some sort of "edge" over the competition. Standard mode isn't intended to be the most accurate mode (by Samsung), it's intended to be a less vibrant and possibly more acceptable choice than Dynamic mode. Movie mode disables all the extraneous processing and requires fewer and smaller adjustments to calibrate the images.
post #73 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Doug Blackburn View Post

Yes, you can CALIBRATE Standard mode to be accurate, but using factory default settings and having no calibration gear, Standard mode is less accurate than Movie mode. That's the point I was making in my post. In the past, Standard mode disabled the 2 warmest color temp settings so you couldn't select them sticking you with images that were blue-er than ideal. If that has changed, that would be one less thing to be worried about if using Standard mode. However, Standard mode still uses proprietary imaging processing that Samsung feels gives it some sort of "edge" over the competition. Standard mode isn't intended to be the most accurate mode (by Samsung), it's intended to be a less vibrant and possibly more acceptable choice than Dynamic mode. Movie mode disables all the extraneous processing and requires fewer and smaller adjustments to calibrate the images.

Warm1/2 are available on the 2012 models in Standard
post #74 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Doug Blackburn View Post

We're not saying that, exactly... we're saying that this thread is about calibration. And you cannot calibrate a video display by eye. So... unless you are discussing measurements and how to do them to get the best result or what measurements to use to fix a certain problem you have identified, etc. You're really not talking about calibration, so, no, you shouldn't post in the Calibration thread. So that kind of implies by default that this thread topic really isn't for setting-up TVs or projectors by eye. But that subject does come up from time to time and we're an easy-going-enough bunch of folks to explain, yet again, why using eyes alone isn't adequate for calibration. Now... as mentioned earlier, we do use eyes for a couple of things... setting black level with a PLUGE pattern and eyes... not really any easy or convenient alternative, that's how you setup black level. Likewise, finding the best setting for the Sharpness control... that's best done with a special sharpness pattern that has vertical and horizontal black lines of varying widths on a gray background... you can't set the Sharpness control with a meter, you have to have a test pattern you view with your eyes. And you want to know what range of Contrast settings are usable without white clipping and that also takes evaluation of a test pattern.

Yes but you seemed to have missed the part I said. As for sharpness, on my sets sharpness seems to look best with 0 on Just Scan.
Quote:
Originally Posted by xvfx View Post

I never adjust settings without the AVS 709 HD test patterns.
Quote:
Once you get past those basic setup steps, you really get into calibration where your goal is to make the grayscale as accurate as possible, get gamma as close to 2.25 as you can get it, and make (at least) your primary and complimentary colors as accurate as your TV's controls allow (these use RGB controls that are most commonly accessed from the user menu these days). Grayscale, gamma, and color management (CMS) is the heart of calibration and they all require a meter to get close to the standards for video displays, you can't make them accurate by eye.

Yes, I understand this. I'm not sitting ramping sliders up and down willingly with any content. As I'm now at that stage where I need a meter. But I can't be far off as the AVS 709 HD test patterns aren't showing R/G/B crush on the two patterns. The one that flashes and the one that has all the colours from low to max.. Nor is it showing faint but I still need a meter to tweak those final parts.

I certainly don't use the false dynamic contrast or black settings.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Doug Blackburn View Post

Sounds like your gamma is much too high, numerically (like 2.6 instead of 2.2 or 2.3. But you cannot know that without a meter and software to measure the video display. Once you measure the video display, all the guess-work is gone. You know what your gamma is, you know what is good and bad about your grayscale, and you know what is good and bad about the color. Some TVs have Gamma settings, some don't. But even if the TV has no gamma setting, a calibrator who knows what he is doing can at least improve gamma if not make it quite good.

If you do not understand gamma (what it is, what it does to images, and why we have it), that would be a good place to begin studying. Without knowing this stuff, you are just blindly changing settings without really understanding what you are doing... that rarely leads to anything constructive.

There's one TV I suffer with this. Samsung LE37S73BD. With the test patterns if I don't have the brightness down to 30 for standard and 34 for Movie (without getting crushed) all the blacks look cloudy. I don't know if there's a gamma setting in the service menu. Every other tv comes out about 44 - 45.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Doug Blackburn View Post

Standard mode disabled the 2 warmest color temp settings so you couldn't select them sticking you with images that were blue-er than ideal.

That's interesting. On the LE46M8 those two modes are greyed out.
Quote:
Originally Posted by PlasmaPZ80U View Post

Warm1/2 are available on the 2012 models in Standard

Yet the strangest thing is, the LE37S73BD allows Warm 1 and 2 in Standard.
post #75 of 141
Thread Starter 
Would turning subcontrast down or the gains down in service menu balance out the continuously changing luminance/ brightness of the brightest white areas/patches?
post #76 of 141
Please Google, Bing or do an AVS thread search for the term ABL (Automatic Brightness Limiter) ... For Plasmas, it's not a bug, it's a "feature."

Next, you might search on "plasma gamma." I'm sure these suggestions will keep you reading for awhile.

Hint: Notice the word automatic as in you have no control (other than turning your contrast down.)
post #77 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by HDTVChallenged View Post

Please Google, Bing or do an AVS thread search for the term ABL (Automatic Brightness Limiter) ... For Plasmas, it's not a bug, it's a "feature."

Next, you might search on "plasma gamma." I'm sure these suggestions will keep you reading for awhile.

Hint: Notice the word automatic as in you have no control (other than turning your contrast down.)

It's a 'feature' in the same way brakes on a car are... I'd really call it a necessity to avoid overloading the power supply and sending the PDP into a state of meltdown.
post #78 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Vic12345 View Post

Would turning subcontrast down or the gains down in service menu balance out the continuously changing luminance/ brightness of the brightest white areas/patches?

No. You will just get yourself in trouble going in there... stay out! Too easy to mess up something you can't recover from.

Subcontrast only changes the operating range of the Contrast control, moving the entire range up or down. You will accomplish noting and could introduce some unforeseen non-linearity or other unpredictable operational anomaly.
post #79 of 141
Thread Starter 
Thanks,also forgot too mention having rgb with normal/brighter hdmi black level set may reduce black crush on mine.meterless here though.
post #80 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by PlasmaPZ80U View Post

It's a 'feature' in the same way brakes on a car are... I'd really call it a necessity to avoid overloading the power supply and sending the PDP into a state of meltdown.

Well there's that along with avoiding blacking out the entire state of California. wink.gif

Honestly, with all of the calibration bug-a-boos with plasmas, I've come to the conclusion that all of the so-called advantages of the technology just aren't worth the hassle. YMMV, of course.
post #81 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by HDTVChallenged View Post

Well there's that along with avoiding blacking out the entire state of California. wink.gif

Honestly, with all of the calibration bug-a-boos with plasmas, I've come to the conclusion that all of the so-called advantages of the technology just aren't worth the hassle. YMMV, of course.

My last few TV purchases have all been LCDs, but it had less to do with calibration and more to do with the fact that I needed a screen under 50"-51" that would hold it's blacks well under ambient light (and preferably under $1K). At that screen size and price point, the only plasmas I could get had no screen filter for keeping blacks black under ambient light and many weren't even 1080p. Also, I game a lot and so I don't want to worry about IR (or burn-in for that matter) at all.

I'd say for dark/dim room viewing plasma is ideal (if for no other reason than stellar black levels), but with more ambient light the gap between LCD and plasma closes quickly with factors like motion resolution, viewing angle, and ABL/peak light output being the main differences. If I was to get a plasma this year, I'd likely go for a ST series Panasonic (as it's probably the best value on the market for plasmas today with a solid black filter and great overall PQ/black levels).
post #82 of 141
Thread Starter 
Hi Doug- Not sure if you were aware but just noticed on the iPad here that when looking at black/grayscale bars pattern that the darkest bar is more blue than all the other brighter bars.I'm thinking the LESSblue bars are the color temp of the iPad here.Is that correct?
post #83 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Vic12345 View Post

Hi Doug- Not sure if you were aware but just noticed on the iPad here that when looking at black/grayscale bars pattern that the darkest bar is more blue than all the other brighter bars.I'm thinking the LESSblue bars are the color temp of the iPad here.Is that correct?

Again ... no way to know unless you actually put a meter to the device.
post #84 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Vic12345 View Post

Hi Doug- Not sure if you were aware but just noticed on the iPad here that when looking at black/grayscale bars pattern that the darkest bar is more blue than all the other brighter bars.I'm thinking the LESSblue bars are the color temp of the iPad here.Is that correct?

When someone quotes color temperature, it is generally assumed that they are referring to 100% white unless otherwise specified. But every grayscale step has a color temperature. If every step is different, you can't really say what the color temperature is... you could average all the grayscale steps but that final number might not be the same number you measure for any grayscale step such is the nature of averages. The RIGHT way to quote color temperature would be something like:

6504K from 0% white to 100% white +/- 300K

But NOBODY ever quotes color temp like that so its a damn near useless spec. Besides that... 6500K can have way too much green or way too much magenta and still be 6500K... the color temp "spec" would be right, but you would HATE the images with a passion. Which is why we use d65 to specify the point we calibrate to. At d65, red, green, and blue are all in proper balance and there's no question about how accurate you are.

You might see an image accuracy spec something like d65 +/- 1.1 dE2000 from 0%-100% white if we forced video displays to have specs as useful/specific/meaningful as audio equipment specs. Not that specs tell the whole story of a display, but a d65 spec as above would actually be more useful than just about ANY spec for audio equipment.
post #85 of 141
Thread Starter 
thanks for explaining it,as your good at doing that...one more question.on the e series the larger white patches might be a little more green then the smaller white patches,am I better too make the big patch less green or add more green too the bias?(2point only tv here)**.Edit just tried and couldn't find which way is better so maybe I'll just leave it be.

ive found the best screen to calibrate on this tv has too have a big white patch around 20%(like a big white news headline rectangle,with some other smaller white patches and lots of various mid level grays ,average bright screen with abl active)That type of screen will show the flaws in the varying grayscale/luminance levels.I've seen it on some news broadcasts,one is one of the national CBC national canada news shows).....One more question- when zoyd says his plasma manipulates the low apl screens can someone explain in easily understood words what he means? Zoyd your allowed to answer eek.gif

Edit - On the iPad the grayscale bars I'm using are from different website gray bar patterns.

One Thing that makes it difficult is the bright whites have a torchy and varying gamma/luminance and any light in room makes a brighter gamma for the dark levels.Thats why I can't turn contrast up much past mid/high 80s as there's always a bit of light in my room.Im not complaining as this tv WOWS me often.

Edit Im now,switched to hdmi Blacklevel low and dynamic contrast low as it reduces the abl washout on some scenes...You cannot have a bright soft colorfull image on this plasma like you can on a CRT or LCD.It has Taken me way too long too figure this out.I've tried every combination I can.It may partly be to do with my adc calibration result numbers though.Only a high contrast picture works on this tv

Edit-Scrapped dynamic contrast as its blowing whites and messing gamma.Now trying brightness about EDIT 3 lower from where any dithering starts.
Edited by Vic12345 - 6/28/13 at 5:03pm
post #86 of 141
You should long ago have turned off every setting that has "Auto" or "Automatic" or "Dynamic" in the name/description. Backliight dimming or local dimming (or auto-iris in a projector) is OK to use, but not while calibrating (that's an LCD feature only, not a plasma feature).

None of those things do anything good for image quality.

Green errors are the easiest to see, blue errors are the most difficult (or least obvious) to see. So green errors should typically be avoided at all costs. What is a "green error"... obviously, too much green is one side of the error, but what is the other side of a green error... when there is too little green. Most people will identify a "too little green" error as the images having too much magenta. That might be true... too much blue and too much red will make too much magenta. But too little green also creates images with too much magenta. If you had a meter, you'd know whether to fix a green error (too much or too little) by adding or removing red and blue OR by adding or removing green. By eye, it's damn near impossible to figure out how to fix an specific error. An error with too little blue could be fixed by adding blue or removing red & green... you'd get the same result either way, but one method would produce messed up measurements (and a messed up picture that might be difficult to diagnose by eye), while using a meter will reveal the right way to fix the error (as with green).

Anyway, since we are so much more sensitive to green light, you want to make sure the green errors are minimized. We don't see magenta as well as we see green so better to have a small extra bit of magenta rather than have too much green --- if you have a choice and can't completely eliminate the error (common when there are only 2 adjustment points).
post #87 of 141
Thread Starter 
Also the more white(higher abl action) on screen the more red (mostly redgain) there is in picture.so have to check for too much red gain as the abl is always active

Plasma
Red -too much- reddish when abl active and horrible color
Too little- flat dull,no color
Green-too much-torch
Too little-magenta,horrible colors
Blue-too much-torch
Too little-yellow,dull flat

Like I've said my color temp is MOSTLY influenced by the HIGHEST ires and try making them look all the same color.

Screens with little white objects like a soccer game where a team has white uniforms are also good for getting higher ires and overall luminance/gamma/contrast setting more accurate on this tv( abl/ softer picture can be fairly active for this),as well it(Stadium lights provides a shinier white uniform vs a Natural Sun lit stadium.im guessing the sunlit stadium gives more accurate calibration)...Also people wearing black clothing with small Bright shiny bits of whiite in a brightly lighted dark background studio set and making luminance/gamma of all gray/black shades the same as the shiny little white patches.(it's also A good way for getting a good contrast setting so it's not too high)

******fair warning reminder -you will drive yourself crazy trying to calibrate a plasma with out a meter.Could still even if you have one.You can watch it with color turned down and through drivin yourself nuts eventually figure it out.

Edit- changed again .the high contrast ratio picture works best in a dark room.I have light in room so the contrast has to go down to edit 70 to balance picture out..EDIT gamma back to 0 as1 washes the whites out a bit much.Brightness /EDIT/ 4 above where the dithering starts

Edit-making high Ires look the same and then matching darker Ires too high ones ends up with a picture short on red.So reds go up.

If i had a nickel everytime I edit a post I'd have a
Edited by Vic12345 - 7/9/13 at 3:27am
post #88 of 141
Thread Starter 
Hi Doug-what IRE levels do the different black tone settings affect(dark,darker,darkest)? And what IRE level does the brightness control affect up too?

Not exactly the topic.just don't want to open new threads and too lazy too search the net right now.
post #89 of 141
Quote:
Originally Posted by Vic12345 View Post

Hi Doug-what IRE levels do the different black tone settings affect(dark,darker,darkest)? And what IRE level does the brightness control affect up too?

Not exactly the topic.just don't want to open new threads and too lazy too search the net right now.

All of them.

Cuts and gains both affect the entire range, just with different amounts.

Which is why you need a meter to quantify the changes.
post #90 of 141
By the way, there is no such thing as IRE in digital video. IRE is an analog video concept that defined how input voltages were displayed as while levels (or gray levels) on the video display. Since digital video is based on 1 and 0 in 8, 10, 12 or 16 bit words and not on voltage, IRE does not exist for digital video. Unfortunately, some people cannot stop using it (incorrectly).

In digital video we use digital levels 0-255 or 16-235 or % white (1% change = 2.55 digital steps if you are using 0-255 or 2.19 digital steps if you are using 16-235). So % white is convenient to use, but it almost always will have "fractional" digital steps which cannot exist. Any "fractional" digital step has to be rounded up or down to the nearest whole number... 2.19 would round-down to 2 while 2.55 would round up to 3 steps... usually
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