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The curved screen
The following essay examines the history of the
curved screen for motion picture presentation
from Raoul Grimoin-Sanson's Cineorama,
which debuted at the Paris Exposition of 1900,
to curved screens in contemporary multiplexes.
The goal of the essay is not to provide
a definitive history of the curved screen but to
explore its virtues and limitations.
Novelty projection formats
The curved screen of the Cineorama process
emerged as a novelty format for the presentation
at the Paris Exposition. Using ten interlocked
70mm projectors, Grimoin-Sanson filled a 360-degree,
300 by 30-foot screen with images of a balloon
ascension, filmed from an actual balloon that took
off from the Tuileries and descended in La Grande
Place de Bruxelles.
The curved screen did not become a fixture of
motion picture presentation until Cinerama, another
novelty format, made it an essential ingredient in the
illusion of depth it provided for spectators. In the
pre-widescreen era, standard projection manuals,
such as F.H. Richardson's Handbook of Projection,
advocated for the installation of flat screens in all
theatres. Richardson wrote that there is no advantage
in the installation of a concave screen surface,
except possibly in cases where the distance of projection
is such that a very short focal length projection
lens [e.g. 3.5 inch] must be employed ...'1
What Richardson acknowledges is a necessary
calculus for the correction of distortion. Short
focal length lenses introduce distortion, spreading
rays of light farther than normal lenses. Curved
screens can function to reduce that distortion. With
wide angle projection lenses, the radius of the distance
from the lens to the screen necessarily varies
across the width of the screen - with a shorter radius
at the centre of the screen and longer radii at the
extreme edges of the screen. A curved screen could
compensate for these differences and ensure a more
or less even distribution of light and a sharper focus
of the image at the edges of the screen.
Between Cineorama and Cinerama, other novelty
projection situations also called for curved
screens. One such screen is associated with Henri
Chretien's Hypergonar lens in its pre-CinemaScope
days. Back in 1937, at the International Exposition in
Paris, two Hypergonar lenses were used to project a
composite, 60 metre by 10 metre panoramic image
onto a concave exterior wall at the Pavilion of Light.
The curved wall compensated, in part, for the distortion
introduced by the cylindrical projection lenses,
maintaining a constant distance in the projection
throw from centre to sides.
Cinerama inventor Fred Waller was also working
with curved screens - projecting a mosaic of still
pictures on a curved screen at the 1939 World's Fair
in New York. At around this time, Waller was experimenting
with peripheral vision as a component of the
illusion of depth. He concluded that in order to fill the
field of human peripheral vision, he would need a
screen that was the width of an entire city block. As
his colleague Ralph Walker explained it, what Waller
needed was a curved screen to delimit the field of
vision and yet convey a sense of the all-embracing
environment of his films'. Grounding his work on the
fact that normal human vision is actually arc-shaped
..., [giving] us a curved view of the world around us'
that took the form of a sweeping arc of about 160-
degrees wide and 60-degrees high', Waller reasoned
that if a picture covering that same area were
projected on a curved screen ..., anyone watching it
would feel as if he were right in the center of it'.2 The
curved screen became an integral part of Waller's
flexible gunnery trainer in the early 1940s and of his
subsequent experiments with Cinerama in the midto-
Film History, Volume 16, pp. 277-285, 2004. Copyright © John Libbey Publishing
ISSN: 0892-2160. Printed in United States of America
John Belton teaches film in the English Department
at Rutgers University. Address correspondence to him
On 30 September 1952, Cinerama premiered at the
Broadway Theatre in New York City on a screen that
was 75 feet wide and 26 feet high.3 The screen filled
the theatre's proscenium arch and then some. The
edges of the curved screen extended eight feet on
either side out into the auditorium. The screen was
so large that the original asbestos curtain could not
be lowered; the fire department had to waive its usual
regulations to permit the theatre to operate without
it.4 The screen covered an arc of 146-degrees and
curved to a depth of roughly 25 feet.5
Original photography for films made in the
Cinerama process relied on three wide angle
(27mm) lenses so the curved screen played a small
role in correcting for distortion introduced by these
lenses. Unlike single projector systems, three-strip
Cinerama projection minimised distortion along the
curve of the screen by locating its projection booths
directly opposite the side panels of the screen; in
other words, the projectors were positioned to provide
head-on projection of each panel. With the
advent of single-strip Cinerama in the early 1960s, a
single booth was used, as well as a less deeplycurved
screen. The new screen reduced the curvature
of the arc from 146 to as little as 90-degrees,
depending on the size of the theatre.6 For example,
the Cinerama Dome, built in 1963 in Los Angeles,
has a 126-degree curve in its 86 by 32-foot screen.
The Cinerama single lens process introduced corrections'
in the printing and projection to make the
new films suitable for projection in the old, deeplycurved,
three-strip theatres. The printer lens of a
special optical printer introduced what was referred
to as barrel distortion' to generate a negative for
producing prints for deeply-curved screens. This
was accompanied by a slight horizontal compression
in the two side panels - a compression that
would be unsqueezed by the curvature of the screen
itself. The projection lens used in the theatre was
designed with what was called pin-cushion distortion'.
The result was that the shape of the projected
rectangular image approximate[d] the projected
shape of the screen'. The amount of pin-cushion
distortion' was proportionate to the focal length of
the projection lens required for any particular theatre'.
7 In other words, single lens Cinerama films must
be corrected' if they are to be shown on deeplycurved
Over the past ten years, several three-strip
Cinerama theatres have been constructed or restored.
These include the Pictureville Theater (opening
ca. 1993) at the National Museum of
Photography, Film and Television in Bradford, England;
the Neon (opening ca. 1996) in Dayton, Ohio,
which no longer operates as a Cinerama theatre;
Paul Allen's Seattle Cinerama Theater (opening in
June, 2000) in Seattle; and the Cinerama Dome
(re-opening in September, 2003) in Los Angeles. I
have been able to see a number of three-strip and
single-strip Cinerama films at Bradford on its 51 by
22-foot screen, which curves to a depth of 15 feet.
While all the three-strip films look pretty good on this
curve, single-strip films, such as Battle of the Bulge
(1965), 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), and The Last
Valley (1971), appeared distorted on the deeply
curved Cinerama screen because those prints were
The curved Cinerama screen automatically
amplified the sense of audience participation by
surrounding spectators with the image, but it also
posed a potential problem. Light reflected from one
edge of the screen struck the opposite edge, washing
out the image. Cinerama solved that problem
with its louvered screen, consisting of 1,100 vertical
strips. The louvered strips prevented the reflection of
light back on to the other side of the screen.
Subsequently, two Cinerama clones were introduced.
Cinemiracle was unveiled with the premiere
of Windjammer in 1958. In 1956-1957, Evsei
M. Goldovskii and Soviet scientists at N.I.F.K.I (All-
Fig. 1. The
in the Broadway
Theatre curved to
a depth of 25 feet
278 John Belton
Union Scientific Research Institute of Motion Picture
Photography) developed Kinopanarama which won
a Grand Prize at the 1958 World's Fair in Brussels.
Great is my Country was the first film in the process.
When it was shown in Moscow, it played on a deeplycurved
screen that was 102 feet wide and 38 feet in
height; it boasted nine-track stereo sound (Cinerama
featured only seven).8 A compilation of six Kinopanarama
films was released in the United States
as Cinerama's Russian Adventure (1966).
The success of Cinerama prompted a host of ersatz
widescreen presentations. A new pair of widescreen
aperture plates and a pair of short focal length projection
lenses enabled any exhibitor to climb onto the
widescreen bandwagon. The wide angle projection
lenses were frequently accompanied by curved
screens - in part, to compensate for the distortion
but also to cash in on the added attraction of a
Cinerama-like curved screen. Paramount introduced
what it called the Paramount Panoramic Screen' for
the projection of 1.66:1 films. It resembled the RCA
Synchro-Screen, designed by theatre architect Ben
Schlanger. The curvature of the screen varied, depending
on the width of the auditorium and the
projection throw. For normal houses, the radius of
curvature should be equal to, or greater than threequarters
of the distance from the centre of the screen
to the projector, assuming that the projector is not
further forward than the last row of seats. In very wide
houses, the radius should be approximately equal to
the projector throw.'9
A year later, with the advent of VistaVision,
Paramount re-issued guidelines for screen curvature:
We recommend curving metallic screens with
a radius equal to the projection throw or in long
narrow houses this radius may be increased to one
and one-fourth or one and one-half times projection
throw. We also recommend tilting the screen back
slightly at the top in theatres that have very high
projection angles.'10 The second VistaVision film,
Strategic Air Command (1955), was shown at the
Paramount Theatre in New York on a 64 by 32-foot
metalised screen that curved to a depth of 3.5 feet.11
screen curved to
a depth of three
feet in the Loew's
The curved screen 279
In the Spring of 1953, Universal-International introduced
a new, all-purpose wide screen with the release
of Thunder Bay. Made by U-I's special
photographic effects dept. in conjunction with the
Research Council of the Motion Picture Producers
Assn., the new screen was designed to be used for
3-D or 2-D films with aspect ratios from 1.33 to 2:1.
According to Universal, After weeks of experimentation,
it was discovered that a larger and brighter
picture could be achieved by spray coating a textile
surface with aluminum powder and giving the screen
a moderate curvature'.12 The screen was curved on
a 90 foot radius'. It had a light magnifying factor of
approximately four to one, as compared to present
theatrical screens of less than one'.13 The depth of
the curve on the 46 by 24-foot screen at Loew's State
Theatre in New York was about three feet.14
The curved screens introduced by Paramount
and Universal saw the industry through a brief transition
period where old, 1.33:1 films were released in
cropped, wide screen formats. During this period, a
number of screen manufacturers marketed curved
screens, such as the Curvamatic Screens' and
Walker Screens. Curved screen even found their way
With the introduction of CinemaScope in September
of 1953, Twentieth Century-Fox designed a complete
technological package for exhibitors, consisting of
widescreen film, stereophonic sound, and curved
screens. Fox's Miracle Mirror screen was designed
to imitate Cinerama's curved screen but without the
latter's deep curve. The curve of the CinemaScope
screen was relatively shallow. Depending on the size
of the projected image and the distance of the projection
throw, the depth of the curve could range
from less than a foot to 8 feet. The CinemaScope
screen curved at the approximate rate of one inch
Fig. 4. Table
of curve for
on picture width
280 John Belton
per foot, resulting, in the case of a sixty-two foot wide
screen, in a five foot curve. The CinemaScope curve
compensated for the horizontal expansion of the
image, keeping the screen at a more or less constant
distance from the centre of the projection lens and,
thus, insuring a focus that was as sharp at the edges
as at the centre.
The accompanying table (facing page) for
computing the dimensions of the curved screen
provides an indication of the depth of the curve
(indicated in column R') in relation to projection
throw (the numbers at the top running from left to
right ranging from 60 to 200) and picture width (the
numbers at the side from top to bottom ranging from
24 to 74).
Fox's instructions for the installation of its Miracle
Mirror screens stated that the curvature of the
screen should have a radius equal to that of the
projection throw. Fox promoted the curved screen as
a way of maintaining adequate picture brightness
across the surface of the screen and, in some situations,
improving picture definition at the sides'. But
the studio also acknowledged that curved screens
do introduce distortion through the curvature of horizontal
lines. This distortion could be reduced by
tilting the top of the screen away from the projector
a few degrees'.15 Fox recommended that exhibitors
obtain special aperture plates to correct for certain
distortions in projection - such as keystoning and
off-centre projection from high angles. When projecting
from a steep angle, in order to get a rectangular
picture on a curved screen, banana-shaped aperture
plates had to be used. Distortion is clearly more
visible with steep projection angles; spectators
seated in the balcony also experienced distortion.
Campaigning against curved
One trade publication - International Projectionist -
published by members of the projectionist union
took issue with Fox and its CinemaScope package,
including the curved screen. International Projectionist
felt that 60-foot-plus wide screens were just too
wide and published its own preferred screen sizes.
For a small theatre - 30 x 18 feet; medium - 44 x 24
feet; and large - 50 x 38 feet (Vol. 28, No. 5 [May
1953]: 23). The journal declared the 2.55:1 aspect
ratio to be absurd' (IP, 9/53, 3) and it sided with small
exhibitors and denounced Fox's insistence on stereo
magnetic sound as part of the CinemaScope package.
But its most consistent target was the curved
screen which it denounced in a series of articles
beginning in March of 1953.
In its editorials, the journal argues that far from
eliminating distortion, the curved screen creates it!
... Because the screen is curved, not flat, horizontal
lines appear bowed, while vertical lines are variously
curved, depending on the camera angle and the seat
from which the screen is viewed... . From the balcony,
the waterfall flows up!' (IP 3/53, 16). Subsequent
editorials included graphic illustrations of
this perceived distortion. In May of 1954, Robert A.
Mitchell complained that a flat floor in a Cinema-
Scope picture looks like the interior of a bathtub.
Walls vault in graceful arches. Rivers flow uphill and
skyscrapers emulate the leaning tower of Pisa.'16 As
late as 1960, they recommended that a prism-type
compensator be attached to the CinemaScope lens
to straighten out its horizontal lines (IP 2/60, 22). The
prism attachment was designed to correct Cinema-
Scope's supposed horizontal sag'.
In a review of a CinemaScope demo at the
Roxy, an editorial complained that the curve of the
screen was too deep, about 5 feet at the Roxy, and
while necessary for this vast expanse, it irritated us
The curved screen 281
because we were always conscious of it'. (IP, 5/53,
When Radio City Music Hall installed a flat 70
by 28-foot screen for its premiere of Knights of the
Round Table in CinemaScope, International Projectionist
congratulated the Hall on defying Fox's insistence
on a curved screen. One of the problems with
curved screens for movie palaces that still ran stage
shows was the difficulty in flying' the screen. Both
the extreme size of the screen and its curve demanded
considerable space in the fly lofts above the
stage - space which the Music Hall apparently did
not have. But it was not impossible to fly a Cinema-
Scope screen with the help of two-to-three counterweights.
When Paramount demonstrated VistaVision
at the Hall in the Spring of 1954, the review was titled
Promise of Sanity at Music Hall'. The editors of IP
vastly preferred the less extreme VistaVision format
to that of CinemaScope.
Todd-AO restored the madness with a vengeance.
In its attempt to duplicate the experience of Cinerama
with one projector and one strip of film, Todd-
AO relied on extreme, bug-eye lenses in original
photography and on a deeply curved screen in projection.
Instead of Cinerama's louvered screen,
Todd-AO introduced a specially designed lenticular
screen, which was a plastic-coated fabric with an
aluminum surface embossed in a formation of lenticles,
or tiny lenses'. It performed a similar function to
Cinerama's louvered screen, preventing the surface
from reflecting light back on itself at the extremities'.
17 Like CinemaScope's Miracle Mirror screen,
Todd-AO's screens also concentrated the reflected
light into the area occupied by the audience (rather
than dispersing it throughout the auditorium).
The Todd-AO screen curved to a depth of 13
feet for a screen with a width of 52 feet (at the chord)
and a height of 26 feet.18 This extreme screen curvature
resulted in visible distortion, which Brian O'Brien
corrected in his design of the system's optics.
Todd-AO's ingenious answer to the problem
of distortion was to compensate for it in the printing
process, by introducing optical distortions into the
projection prints. Thus American Optical developed
an optical correcting printing process which eliminate[
d] distortions in wide films when projected from
high angles onto a sharply curved screen'.19 This
corrective-printing process also corrected prints for
distortion caused by the use of extreme wide-angle
lenses in photography'.20 (The degree of curve in the
screen also eliminated some of the distortion introduced
by the use of extreme wide angle camera
lenses, but Mike Todd, Jr. insisted that O'Brien's
lenses resulted in some optical distortion in the final
print of Oklahoma! even when corrected' prints were
projected on the Todd-AO screen.)21
Todd-AO's film laboratory in Fort Lee actually
produced two classes' of projection prints for theatres
- one for projection at angles from 10 to 15
degrees and another for angles of 15 degrees or
more.22 Demonstrations of this corrective printing
process' were given in September 1955 at George
Skouras' Rivoli Theatre in New York, which had installed
a new projection booth on the ground floor to
screen curved to
a depth of
roughly 13 feet at
the Rivoli Theater.
282 John Belton
enable comparison tests. One optically-corrected,
70mm print of Oklahoma! was projected from the
theatre's original booth, which had an extreme projection
angle of 22 degrees and another, non-corrected
print was projected from this new booth,
which featured virtually head-on projection at an
angle of 2.8 degrees.23 Later that year, similar tests
were conducted at the Rivoli for participants at the
79th SMPTE conference in New York, but this time a
single booth was used. To demonstrate the virtues
of the corrective printing process, an uncorrected
print of Oklahoma! was projected at an angle of 22
degrees, followed by a corrected print, which eliminated
the distortions seen previously.24 Todd-AO
claimed that this system could accommodate projection
angles as great as 25 degrees.25 Though
Todd-AO prints could be tailor-made for individual
theatres, the deeply-curved, Todd-AO theatre
screen remained incompatible with prints filmed in
other widescreen processes, such as Cinema-
Scope, which employed no corrective printing process.
These films were therefore terribly distorted
when shown on a Todd-AO screen from extreme
projection angles. This proved to be the chief problem
with curved screens - since the degree of curvature
varied with each process, no one curved
screen could be made compatible for the exhibition
the various curved-screen formats.
Dimension-150, developed by Dr. Richard Vetter and
Dr. C. Williams in 1963, also attempted to solve the
problem of curved-screen distortion. D-150's optical
system relies on 50-degree, 70-degree, 120-degree
and 150-degree lenses for principal photography.
During the printing process, a special lens is used to
correct' the film image so that it can be projected on
a deeply-curved screen similar to that used in Cinerama.
The D-150 printing process can also generate
flat-screen versions for exhibition in 70mm or
35mm. The D-150 print of Patton shown at Bradford
in 2002 on the Cinerama screen was clearly generated
for flat screen exhibition. It was visibly distorted
on the Cinerama screen.
D-150 was designed to be shown on screens
from 120 degrees to 150 degrees of arc, depending
on the physical features of various theatres. A typical
deeply-curved screen size: 34 feet high by 92 feet
wide; its aspect ratio is 2.7 to 1.'26 The typical D-150
screen curves to a depth of 20 feet.27 At the Rivoli,
the D-150 screen curved to a depth of 37.5 feet.28
Fig. 7. An
The curved screen 283
Numerous curved-screen processes have been installed
in theme parks and other special venues,
including Disney's Circarama and Circlevision,
Spacearium, and various Imax systems. Circarama,
introduced in 1955, was a 16mm system that used
eleven cameras in production and the same number
of interlocked projectors to display 360-degree images
on eleven panels on the walls of a circular
auditorium. At Disneyland, the screen was eight feet
in height and the auditorium had a diameter of 40
feet. Spectators stood in the centre of the auditorium.
29 Circlevision, installed at Disneyland and Disney
World's Epcot Center, was a 35mm system that
projected 360-degrees of image on nine panels. The
Wonders of China was made to highlight the Circlevision
format. In all of these multi-camera and multiprojector
systems, distortion in the projected image
is minimised because projection is more-or-less
head-on and the curvature in each panel of the
composite 360-degree screen is minimal.
At the 1958 Photokina Exhibition in Cologne,
Germany, Adalbert Baltes' Cinetarium process was
demonstrated. Cinetarium involved the use of a
hemispherical mirror in photography and projection
to project a 360-degree circular image onto a domelike
screen mounted in the theatre's ceiling.30
Introduced in 1967 at Montreal's Expo 67,
Imax has preserved the curved screen experience in
both the Omnimax and Imax Solido systems; Omnimax
projects images through a 180-degree fish-eye
lens onto a dome in the ceiling of the auditorium that
is up to 99 feet in diameter while Imax Solido projects
stereoscopic images onto a screen that wraps
around the audience.
The deeply-curved screen remained a feature
of specialised exhibition formats, such as Cinerama,
Todd-AO, and D-150, into the late 1960s, but it
became increasingly rare thereafter - except in Imax
theatres and theme parks. The slightly-curved
screen disappeared from conventional theatres
much earlier - probably by the late 1950s and early
1960s, after the first generation of Miracle Mirror and
other curved screens had been replaced.
But within the last 10-20 years, the curved
screen has begun to make a comeback. Slightlycurved
screens now function as attractions in contemporary
exhibition. Starting in 1998, AMC theatres
began to install the Torus Compound Curved Screen
in its theatres. This screen uses powerful fans that
act as air pumps to keep the viewing surface pulled
back into a concave dish shape.'31 Introduced in
1987 by Sigma Design Group, the Torus screen is a
seamless screen without perforations for behindthe-
screen speakers. Perforations would interfere
with the vacuum system that maintains the curve. As
a result, speakers are placed above, below and
alongside the screens. One-fifth of AMC theatres
have installed the $25,000 Torus screens.
The Marcus Theatres, the ninth largest theatre
circuit in the United States with over 490 theatres in
the mid-West, boasts that it has all the amenities ...
stadium seating, digital sound, and big curved
screens ...'. A number of United Artists theatres also
advertise curved screens while many multi-screen
cinema complexes advertise wall-to-wall curved
screens, digital sound', and stadium seating.
The return of the curved screen may have
more to do with the design of contemporary multiplexes
than with their novelty value or showmanship
appeal. The size of contemporary,multi-screen theatres
has encouraged the use of short focal length
projection lenses to get large images on big screens
with very little projection throw. One lens manufacturer,
Schneider, advertises a line of Super-Cinelux
wide angle projection lenses. These short focal
length lenses start at 24mm and are being marketed
to theatres for curved screen exhibition.
Ironically, these short lenses and limited projection
throws look back to theatre conditions in the
silent era and to the discussion of screen curvature
in Richardson's 1927 Handbook of Projection. As
Richardson noted, curved screens were only preferable
to flat screens in cases where the distance of
projection is such that a very short focal length
projection lens must be employed'. The rule of
thumb is still all about keeping the edges of the
image in focus.
The curved screen has made a comeback, but
it has returned not so much as a novelty as a norm.
It is no longer a device used to engulf audiences in
images and to produce an illusion of depth. The
shallow curves of contemporary screens can only
allude nostalgically to deeply curved screens of the
1950s and 1960s. Curved screens give exhibitors
something to ballyhoo, like digital sound, stadium
seating, and cup holders, but their impact on the
nature of the motion picture experience that today's
spectators have is minimal. Their impact is more like
that of a cup holder than that of digital sound or
stadium seating, which really have transformed the
nature of that experience.
284 John Belton
1. Richardson, Handbook of Projection (5th edn) (New
York: Chalmers Publishing Co., 1927): 233.
2. Ralph Walker, The Birth of an Idea' in New Screen
Techniques, ed. Martin Quigley, Jr. (New York:
Quigley Publishing, 1953): 114-116.
3. International Projectionist gives the figures as 78 feet
around the curve, 51 feet straight across the curve,
and 26 feet high. January 1953.
4. William R. Latady, Cinerama Arrives', Theatre Catalog,
1953-54 (Philadelphia: Jay Emanuel Publications,
5. Greg Kimble, How the West Was Won', American
Cinematographer, Vol. 64, No. 10 (October 1983):
6. Keith H. Swadkins, Whatever happened to Cinerama?',
Cinema Technology Quarterly, Vol. 3, No.
4 (July 1990): 63.
7. Cinerama Single Lens Process', www.widescreenmuseum
8. Soviet Cinerama Makes its Debut', New York Times
(9 March 1958).
9. Old Films Get the New Look', Theatre Catalog,
1953-54 (Philadelphia: Jay Emanuel Publications,
10. The Paramount VistaVision Process', Theatre Catalog,
1954-55 (Philadelphia: Jay Emanuel Publications,
11. International Projectionist, Vol. 30, No. 4 (April 1955):
12. Theatre Catalog, 1953-53 (Philadelphia: Jay
Emanuel Productions, 1954): 202.
13. Old Films Get the New Look', 202.
14. International Projectionist Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 1953):
15. Installing CinemaScope', Theatre Catalog, 1954-55
(Philadelphia: JayEmanuelPublications, 1954): 225-
16. The Anatomy of CinemaScope', International Projectionist,
Vol. 29, No. 5 (May 1954): 7.
17. Motion Picture Daily (7 October 1955), 16.
18. The actual width of the Rivoli screen was 63 feet when
measured along the curve, but it was 52 feet along
the chord, which was the term used to describe the
distance, in a straight line, from one edge of the
screen to the other.
19. Film Daily (2 May 1956).
20. Progress Committee Report', JSMPTE 65, No. 5
(May 1956), 248.
21. Michael Todd, Jr. and Susan McCarthy Todd, A
Valuable Property: The Life Story of Michael Todd
(New York: Arbor House, 1983): 294-295.
22. Film Daily (2 September 1955), 10.
23. Ibid., 14.
24. Film Daily (2 May 1956).
25. Film Daily (26 October 1956).
26. D-150 Demonstration Run Gets Unanimous
Raves', International Projectionist, Vol. 39, No. 3
(March 1964): 8.
27. Charles Loring, Photographing The Bible' in Dimension-
150', American Cinematographer (February
28. Don V. Kloepfl, ed. Motion Picture Projection and
Theatre Presentation Manual (New York: SMPTE,
29. Alden, Alex (uncredited), Widescreen Motion Picture
Systems. Pamphlet published by the Society of Motion
Picture and Television Engineers, New York,
1965. No page numbers.
30. Alden, Alex (uncredited), Widescreen Motion Picture
Systems. Pamphlet published by the Society of Motion
Picture and Television Engineers. New York,
1965. No page numbers.
31. Michael P. Lewis, Silver Screens Worth Their Weight
in Gold', Los Angeles Times (15 July 1998).
The curved screen 285