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# AVS HD 709 - Blu-ray & MP4 Calibration - Page 5

Quote:
Originally Posted by dr1394

It's just a rounding issue. The 601 and 709 specifications want you to round up for integers. If you do the floating point math, you'll see that Y = 63 (0x3f), Cb = 102 (0x66) and Cr = 240 (0xf0) converts to R = 235.4406, G = 16.502108 and B = 15.831311. The 16.502108 gets rounded up to 17. Here's the floating point code (for video RGB levels):

Code:
```/*
Converts YUV to RGB floating point
*/

#include
#include

#define TRUE            1
#define FALSE           0

/* color space conversion coefficients
* for YCbCr -> RGB mapping
*
* entries are {crv,cbu,cgu,cgv}
*
* crv=(219/224)*(1-cr)/0.5
* cbu=(219/224)*(1-cb)/0.5
* cgu=(219/224)*(cb/cg)*(1-cb)/0.5
* cgv=(219/224)*(cr/cg)*(1-cr)/0.5
*
* where Y=cr*R+cg*G+cb*B (cr+cg+cb=1)
*/

/* ITU-R BT709-5 (2002) coefficients */
/* cg = 0.7152 */
/* cb = 0.0722 */
/* cr = 0.2126 */

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
int             y, cr, cb;
double  r, g, b;

if (argc != 4) {
fprintf(stderr, "usage: yuvtorgbcalc   \
");
exit(-1);
}

y = atoi(argv[1]);
cb = atoi(argv[2]);
cr = atoi(argv[3]);

r = (double)y + 1.5396482142857 * (double)(cr - 128);
g = (double)y - 0.4576750704098 * (double)(cr - 128) - 0.18314292755273 * (double)(cb - 128);
b = (double)y + 1.814180357142857 * (double)(cb - 128);

printf("R = %f, G = %f, B = %f\
", r, g, b);

return 0;
}
```
http://www.w6rz.net/yuvtorgbcalc.zip

Ron

It amazes me how you have some code for every question I ask.

You don't have the source for a time machine laying around do you? I was thinking I could jump forward a few weeks, ask myself all the questions I have, and then jump back to save us all some time and trouble

### AVS Top Picks

Quote:

Just a small clarification, there are no sources using "601 primaries". The rec601 encoding matrix was formulated for NTSC primaries which are no longer used, instead SMPTE-C primaries are most commonly (if not exclusively) used to master film and broadcast material regardless of the encoding matrix. This may be true of most HD content as well as I haven't seen anyone that can definitively point to any source material mastered with rec709 primaries, maybe Ron can chime in on that. If that's the case then even if you have rec709 encoded material such as your disk, you should calibrate your display to SMPTE-C primaries.

If an upconverting DVD player is properly changing 601 to 709, then I would think it would be important to have your display calibrated with 709 primaries if only for the upconverting DVD player's input. Theoretically in this scenario the SMPTE-C primaries used for mastering should be realigned to look proper with a display using the 709 primaries.

Any way you slice this, it's a mess. I don't think it will really get any better unless manufacturers start rolling all their TVs set to spec out of the box. I wouldn't count on it improving as long as manufacturers are just using any primaries they feel will make their sets sell better on the showroom floor.
If anyone wants to read further about what zoyd commented on, one discussion is in http://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...6#post11834956 For the sake of simplicity, the final determination of the thread is basically to calibrate your display for SMPTE-C primaries if possible like mentioned.

SMPTE-C x, y, Y values:
White (D65) = 0.3127, 0.3290, 1.00
Red = 0.630, 0.340, 0.212
Green = 0.310, 0.595, 0.701
Blue = 0.155, 0.070, 0.087
Yellow = 0.421, 0.507, 0.913
Cyan = 0.231, 0.326, 0.788
Magenta = 0.314, 0.161, 0.299

If you cannot adjust the xy of your primaries, then another method is to use something like the luminance calculator from Greg Rodgers (http://www.accupel.com/HDG3000_manuals.html) in order to set the Y values. My own questions in that area are addressed in http://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...0#post11781270 and http://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...7#post11933657.
Quote:
Originally Posted by alluringreality

On my computer the HD DVD zip from windows is 300MB and the 7-zip is around 20MB, so it's 15 times larger. If you know of a freeware compressor that can do what 7-zip can do fine, but at this time there is no plan to use that format. As it is now it takes me over half an hour to upload, so it's out of the question unless someone wants to do it on their own and host it. I'm not forcing anyone to do anything, just don't download it or use a windows computer so the exe works.

Wow! That's astounding. That makes it pretty easy to understand your decision to use 7-zip
Quote:
Originally Posted by sperron

Theoretically in this scenario the SMPTE-C primaries used for mastering should be realigned to look proper with a display using the 709 primaries.

No, if the source is mastered with SMPTE-C primaries you calibrate your display to SMPTE-C (if you can). The whole exercise of calibration is to follow standards that replicate the original image using your display so if the original image was produced using a SMPTE-C monitor then you want to view it using the same. The confusion on this topic is almost entirely due to the fact that people conflate the encoding equations with the primary chromiticities. They think that because they have an HD resolution display that all HD material must be displayed with "HD" primaries but the encoding equations do not define the primary chromiticities, the only thing you can assume when using rec.709 encoded material is that you're working with HD resolutions.

As a practical matter, at the end of the thread alluringreality pointed to you, can see an example of the difference between using SMTPE-C and rec.709 primaries.
Quote:
Originally Posted by zoyd

No, if the source is mastered with SMPTE-C primaries you calibrate your display to SMPTE-C (if you can). The whole exercise of calibration is to follow standards that replicate the original image using your display so if the original image was produced using a SMPTE-C monitor then you want to view it using the same. The confusion on this topic is almost entirely due to the fact that people conflate the encoding equations with the primary chromiticities. They think that because they have an HD resolution display that all HD material must be displayed with "HD" primaries but the encoding equations do not define the primary chromiticities, the only thing you can assume when using rec.709 encoded material is that you're working with HD resolutions.

As a practical matter, at the end of the thread alluringreality pointed to you, can see an example of the difference between using SMTPE-C and rec.709 primaries.

By the same token, there is a set of primaries defined by Rec. 709, and those are slightly different than SMTPE-C. As you can see by Zoyd's link, the difference is within the limits of most CMS, and most of us can't change the primaries at all (we don't have a CMS).

It is entirely possible that most material is still being mastered to SMTPE-C, probably due to reluctance in adopting the newer standard (I am guessing it would cost money to change everything over). With the money that studios make on movies, you would think that they could do it right and do everything within one standard.

Let's try not to go too far with this discussion in this particular thread. I think we have covered all the necessary bases and Zoyd and alluringreality have provide some good external reading that basically tells you everything you need to know. Once you have a good understanding from those links, then you should be able to make a decision on your own as to which primaries you want to target (if you can change them to begin with).

The pertinent information to this thread/disc is that the Rec. 709 encoding matrix was used.
I wish a true Constant Luminance system were used with the HD-DVD formats and High-Def monitors. Current (as well as all color since 1953) color encoding for the HD formats has a failure of Constant Luminance - in other words, the wrong equations are used for deriving the Y-luminance signal - this causes some of the high-frequency luminance to be carried on the bandwidth limited chroma channels. The result is luminance notches as well as completely incorrect reproduction of any saturated color. You can see the failure of constant luminance on a color bar pattern - it shows up as the black/gray bar between the green and magenta color bars.

The problem is that Gamma correction is applied BEFORE the RGB signals are encoded into Y, B-y & R-y. High frequency luma ends up 'leaking' into the chroma channels, which are then filtered, throwing away that info. For true Constant Luminance performance, linear RGB signals should first be matrixed into Y-R-B signals, then gamma corrected, THEN the two bandwidth limited chroma channels derived. The decoder in the TV has to change - the incoming signals are dematrixed into Y-R-B, then inverse gamma applied, then dematrixed to match the display into RGB, then display gamma processing applied. This complicates the display processing and manufacturers have ignored this since 1953 even though it's been pointed out again and again. Since all modern digital displays have gamma processors, this should have been done. Even SMPTE groups argued for it.

True Constant Luminance reproduction has many benefits - correct reproduction of colors at any brightness/saturation level as well as the appearance of higher bandwidth. A Constant Luma system with, say, 5mHz of chroma bandwidth LOOKS like a system with 8 or 9 mHz of chroma. A 4:2:0 encoding looks more like true 4:2:2. It also 'hides' errors due to bitrate reduction better and makes block encoding artifacts much less visible.
Quote:
Originally Posted by Disclord

I wish a true Constant Luminance system were used with the HD-DVD formats and High-Def monitors. Current (as well as all color since 1953) color encoding for the HD formats has a failure of Constant Luminance - in other words, the wrong equations are used for deriving the Y-luminance signal - this causes some of the high-frequency luminance to be carried on the bandwidth limited chroma channels.

Not relevant to this thread but all video (including SD) does not obey the principle of Constant Luminance because of the encoding sequence (gamma correct first, matrix combine Y second), we were just discussing this topic here.
I posted it here because others were talking about color and without Constant Luminance, saturated color will never be correct even if the same primaries and matrix are used.

One thing that is amazing is the lack of knowledge about constant luma - many, many engineers have no idea what it is or even know that Luma is being incorrectly derived.

I do think it is very sad that it wasn't standardized as we moved into the HD world. There was no excuse for that.
Good job! Thank you, alluringreality.
My question is some people has DVE or AVIA. This AVS HD 709 could be used as a replacement of DVE or AVIA, or, people can combine them in their display calibration? If they can be combines, how to archive the best result?
Quote:
Originally Posted by tonyrob

Good job! Thank you, alluringreality.
My question is some people has DVE or AVIA. This AVS HD 709 could be used as a replacement of DVE or AVIA, or, people can combine them in their display calibration? If they can be combines, how to archive the best result?

I don't know that I would call AVS HD a replacement for AVIA or DVE, simply because AVIA and DVE contain a lot of explanation as to how TV's work and how to use certain patterns. You won't find that on AVS HD (it only contains the patterns themselves). AVS HD doesn't currently contain all the patterns you would find on AVIA or DVE, but we are working to add some geometry/sharpness related patterns for the Beta 2 release.

AVS HD is basically geared toward users with at least some experience that want a High Definition disc to calibrate their HD sources. AVS HD is currently limited to HD DVD only, but we are also working on an AVCHD version for Blu-ray.

As far as getting the best result, I would suggest using AVS HD for HD sources and AVIA, DVE, or GetGray for SD.
Like hwjohn commented, this is not necessarily intended to replace the use of commercial disks. For example in setting up surround sound, Avia and DVE offer audio patterns that we have no intention of ever including. Our intent is simply to include all the patterns we consider absolutely necessary for display calibration from HD DVD and Blu-ray players with what relatively inexpensive tools we have available. On the next disk, most everything I use should be included except for audio timing.

Basically I just wanted to provide patterns for setting basic user-menu and service-menu display controls in as easy to use format as possible. If anyone considers that the disk is missing a pattern that would help them in that regard, then we're open to considering other patterns. Of course I would need some explination of how it would help you to setup a display with tools under say \$500, because the next disk should include a majority of the items I've found most useful.
Quote:

No, if the source is mastered with SMPTE-C primaries you calibrate your display to SMPTE-C (if you can). The whole exercise of calibration is to follow standards that replicate the original image using your display so if the original image was produced using a SMPTE-C monitor then you want to view it using the same.

Assuming a DVD is mastered using SMPTE-C primaries, if a upconverting DVD player is functioning properly, won't it "twist" the color space of the already SMPTE-C 601 source material in an attempt to make it look proper for 709? It seems to me that in this situation the player would offset the color space of the original SMPTE-C source material. Merely having your primaries set for SMPTE-C would not undo the offset the upconverting player performed.
Quote:
Originally Posted by alluringreality

Like hwjohn commented, this is not necessarily intended to replace the use of commercial disks. For example in setting up surround sound, Avia and DVE offer audio patterns that we have no intention of ever including. Our intent is simply to include all the patterns we consider absolutely necessary for display calibration from HD DVD and Blu-ray players with what relatively inexpensive tools we have available. On the next disk, most everything I use should be included except for audio timing.

Basically I just wanted to provide patterns for setting basic user-menu and service-menu display controls in as easy to use format as possible. If anyone considers that the disk is missing a pattern that would help them in that regard, then we're open to considering other patterns. Of course I would need some explination of how it would help you to setup a display with tools under say \$500, because the next disk should include a majority of the items I've found most useful.

Congratulations alluringreality. I have the combo (PAL) DVE for calibration. For visual level settings (together with optical color filters) I find the your "flashing levels" version way superior to the DVE approach. Unfortunately I don't have (yet) an HD player. I can only see the .iso content on my PC screen. I there any way to get an SD version of this content?
Our focus is HD DVD and Blu-ray, so we will not be making any SD versions. Much of this disk is at least partially documented in the first thread from the links area. If you read that and decide you want to create your own SD pattern, and you can't screen capture because of using PowerDVD, then I could post the original image but it's on a different computer than this one.
Quote:
Originally Posted by alluringreality

Our focus is HD DVD and Blu-ray, so we will not be making any SD versions. Much of this disk is at least partially documented in the first thread from the links area. If you read that and decide you want to create your own SD pattern, and you can't screen capture because of using PowerDVD, then I could post the original image but it's on a different computer than this one.

Thanks for yr quick response, and maybe another idea for your valuable calibration approach: suppose a screen where you have a 75% contrast, 100% saturated red horizontal bar in the middle of the screen, embedded in a left to right 50%/100% gray gradient for the rest of the screen. And a second pattern with the same red bar and left right reverted gray gradient. By viewing through a red filter while alternating the patterns there will be a zone (or2) on the horizontal axis where the gray will remain at the same level of the red bar. This zone could be marked with marked as 100% saturation, and so could the rest of the bar get (symmetrical) saturation percentages This approach would allow e.g. calibrating for a "calibrated" over or under saturation. The idea could of course work for other colors (blue..) and use multiple color stripes enbedded in the gray gradients.
I think what you're describing is a 75% color next to a grayscale ramp from 50% to 100%. I don't necessarily understand what application that would have. The best I can come up with is if you know your primaries are over or undersaturated and you want to reduce or increase the luminance to compensate and try to reduce delta E. Even with knowing that my A2000 SXRD had a lot of green oversaturation, the only way I would know how to use that is if someone else measured their TV and then said maybe make 75% green match 70% gray. Of course they could also just say to set it even and back off the color control three notches too. I don't understand any other application where it might be beneficial to set color high or low.
Yes it would as an alternative to the flashing colors in the color bars show the amaount of color (saturation)
Quote:
Originally Posted by sperron

Assuming a DVD is mastered using SMPTE-C primaries, if a upconverting DVD player is functioning properly, won't it "twist" the color space of the already SMPTE-C 601 source material in an attempt to make it look proper for 709? It seems to me that in this situation the player would offset the color space of the original SMPTE-C source material. Merely having your primaries set for SMPTE-C would not undo the offset the upconverting player performed.

But the two things (primary chromaticity on the one hand, the matrix to/from YCbCr on the other) are distinct. The upconverting DVD player twists to the 709 colorspace to ensure that color is decoded correctly. This doesn't have any impact on what the primaries are on the display, which are physically inherent to the display itself except for cases with a CMS where other primaries within the physical gamut can be imitated.

This is part of the confusion in that there are two color differences between SD content and HD content, and people confuse these two into the same thing or being directly related when they are not. 601 does not define primaries at all actually, but it is assumed to be the primaries defined in SMPTE C. 601 does define the encode matrix for component video. 709 defines both primaries, and also an encode matrix which differs from that in 601. The most pressing concern is to ensure that color decoding is correct. A far more minor concern is the difference between display primaries that are assumed (well, 601 assumes, 709 actually defines). The difference between 709 and SMPTE C is really quite minor, and realistically much smaller than the delta that most displays have between their actualy primaries and either one of the standards. And given the almost total lack of clarity in terms of what displays are being used to master HD content and that many may still have SMPTE C primaries in the mastering bay, fretting over just which primary chromaticiy you are using seems somewhat irrelevant at this point. Far more important is to ensure that you are decoding color properly, because that is a significant, and quite visible error.
The disk has been updated to Beta2. This release introduces the AVCHD version for Blu-ray players. The HD DVD version also has an entirely different mpeg2 encode. The new version is functionally the same as the Beta1 disk, so if you have already downloaded the Beta1 HD DVD you don't necessarily need to download the Beta2 HD DVD unless you would like to help us test that the new disk works correctly.
The Blu-Ray disc works great in the PS3. A quick warning for anyone bothered by flashing lights though, the vertical resolution pattern flashes horribly. I take it that the PS3 doesn't deinterlace 1080i material when outputting 1080p and instead just scales each field into a single frame.
The avchd iso on Dvd works great on Ps3, Thanks a lot.
The only thing I wonder is....Ps3 outputs 1080i on my Pioneer 507xd, is it right?
The Pio accepts 1080 24p from Ps3 but it doesn't accept 1080p 50/60;
Is it fine to calibrate the display with Hcfr ans spyder2 with 1080i output?

btw wonderful job
Quote:
Originally Posted by mpresicce

The avchd iso on Dvd works great on Ps3, Thanks a lot.
The only thing I wonder is....Ps3 outputs 1080i on my Pioneer 507xd, is it right?
The Pio accepts 1080 24p from Ps3 but it doesn't accept 1080p 50/60;
Is it fine to calibrate the display with Hcfr ans spyder2 with 1080i output?

btw wonderful job

I don't think there is really any such thing as 1080p50/60 (somebody correct me if I'm wrong). There is 1080i60 and 1080p30 (or in the case of our disk, 59.94 and 29.97, respectively). I would imagine your display would accept 1080p30 if it will accept 1080p24, but you may want to double check that.

In any event, it is fine to display any of our patterns in 1080i. For the patterns we currently have on the disk, it will make no difference at all.

Do note that the Misc. section on the Beta 2 disk was encoded as interlaced to begin with, so if you are viewing that section on HD DVD, it may show as 1080i instead of 1080p.

alluringreality could better answer this, but I believe the re-encode to AVCHD makes all of the chapters interlaced 1080i, so you may get a 1080i signal for every chapter if you are using the AVCHD. I haven't had time to check that yet (I know, shame on me). In any event, 1080i or 1080p is fine. For that matter, 720p is fine as well for the current patterns, with exception to the last three patterns in the misc section.
I believe there is 1080p 50/60 Hz:

from http://www.dtvcenter.com/support/pioneerreviews.htm
...The only slight disappointment at this stage is the inability of the HDMIs to accept 1080p signals at 50 or 60Hz. This means they won't take pictures from a 1080p upscaling DVD player. However, unlike most rival TVs, the 507XD's HDMIs take 1080p/24 - the purest form of 1080p output delivered from one or two upcoming high-end Blu-ray players....

Anyway my only concern was about calibration with patterns displayed at 1080i, so if it is fine: great!

Thank You again for the great job.
Quote:
Originally Posted by mpresicce

I believe there is 1080p 50/60 Hz:

from http://www.dtvcenter.com/support/pioneerreviews.htm
...The only slight disappointment at this stage is the inability of the HDMIs to accept 1080p signals at 50 or 60Hz. This means they won't take pictures from a 1080p upscaling DVD player. However, unlike most rival TVs, the 507XD's HDMIs take 1080p/24 - the purest form of 1080p output delivered from one or two upcoming high-end Blu-ray players....

Anyway my only concern was about calibration with patterns displayed at 1080i, so if it is fine: great!

Thank You again for the great job.

Thanks for the link. I never really thought to much about 1080p60 as I know it can't be broadcast, and I don't think it can be put on HD DVD or Blu-ray, but not sure about the upscalers. Maybe Ron will stop by and set me straight.

Anyway, 1080i is fine.
Downloaded and used the disk on an RCA HDV5000 (A1). Works great and thanks a lot for this. Quick question though.

I was calibrating my HD-DVD player and I got two results. Which would be better: brightness- 44, contrast- 46 or brightness- 45, contrast- 31?

In both cases I can see all flashing bars in the contrast test. With the higher contrast I was seeing some banding in U-571. With the lower contrast I don't know if I am missing out on a better picture quality. Any advice?

Thanks.
I currently own a Panasonic Ae1000 with the waveform monitor on it, and am currently reading and learning how to use it to the best I can.

Are there any patterns on this disk that I can use specifically with the waveform monitor. Ie..True Black, True White, etc.

Thanks
Quote:
Originally Posted by algeeba

Downloaded and used the disk on an RCA HDV5000 (A1). Works great and thanks a lot for this. Quick question though.

I was calibrating my HD-DVD player and I got two results. Which would be better: brightness- 44, contrast- 46 or brightness- 45, contrast- 31?

In both cases I can see all flashing bars in the contrast test. With the higher contrast I was seeing some banding in U-571. With the lower contrast I don't know if I am missing out on a better picture quality. Any advice?

Thanks.

Brightness and contrast can interact a bit, which is why you are seeing two different settings.

In general, there are a few things to consider when setting contrast:

1) Eye fatigue. If the contrast is too high for the ambient light, it can hurt your eyes.

2) Grayscale color push. Depending on the TV, one or more colors will "run out" at high contrast, leaving a color tint in the high end grayscale.

3) Clipping of whites.

If you don't have any of those problems, then you would generally set the contrast as high (within reason) as you can without running in to those problems. In my opinion contrast is one of the hardest settings to set. If you have a meter that you are using, then you can find some recommendations around this forum for the output in fL of your type of TV. Being able to measure the light output is a good way to make sure your contrast is reasonable.

As far as the banding, it is hard to comment without seeing it. Can you notice it on other HD DVDs? Could it be the source?
Quote:
Originally Posted by sticks4legs

I currently own a Panasonic Ae1000 with the waveform monitor on it, and am currently reading and learning how to use it to the best I can.

Are there any patterns on this disk that I can use specifically with the waveform monitor. Ie..True Black, True White, etc.

Thanks

I'm not familiar with that model, so I'm not quite sure what the waveform monitor does. If you could provide a link to some documentation on it, I might me able to steer you in the right direction. Maybe some of the ISFers who have more experience with that particular model could chime in as well.
I've just copied and pasted from the owners manual
http://panasonic.ca/PDP/OperatingIns...000-oi-eng.pdf

You can monitor if the brightness and
contrast level of the input signal is in the
recommended range by displaying it in the
waveform monitor. See "WAVEFORM
MONITOR" on page 32.
1. Project a commercial adjusting signal.
2. Press the WAVEFORM button to display the
waveform monitor.
3. Press ENTER button to select the required
4. Press F G I H to adjust the displaying
position of the waveform monitor.
5. Adjust the waveform in each menu.
Make sure to adjust to the 0% line first. Any signal level
below the recommended range will be forced to 0%.
Press PIC. ADJUST button to display the
(-32 to +32) and CONTRAST (-64 to +64) with
I H.
Press PIC. ADJUST twice to display the
(-16 to +16) and CONTRAST (-32 to +32) in red,
green and blue with I H.
Adjusting the waveform of the input signal
OFF Deactivate the waveform monitor.
FULL SCAN
Monitoring the waveform of
brightness and contrast of the
whole image.
SINGLE LINE
SCAN
Monitoring the waveform of
detailed brightness and contrast in
each horizontal line of the image.
Press F G to select the required
line.
NOTE:
When you adjust the SINGLE LINE SCAN, the
position of the waveform is depends on the
position of the selected line.
When the WAVEFORM displayed, the COLOR
MANAGEMENT is disabled.
FULL SCAN(Y) SINGLE LINE SCAN(B)
FULL SCAN(R) SINGLE LINE SCAN(G)
FULL SCAN(G) SINGLE LINE SCAN(R)
FULL SCAN(B) SINGLE LINE SCAN(Y)
BRIGHTNESS Adjust the bottom line of the
waveform to 0 % (0/7.5 IRE).
CONTRAST Adjust the top line of the waveform
to 100 % (100 IRE).
In red
BRIGHTNESS R Adjust the bottom line of the
waveform to 0 % (0/7.5 IRE).
CONTRAST R Adjust the top line of the waveform
to 100 % (100 IRE).
In green
BRIGHTNESS G Adjust the bottom line of the
waveform to 0 % (0/7.5 IRE).
CONTRAST G Adjust the top line of the waveform
to 100 % (100 IRE).
In blue
BRIGHTNESS B Adjust the bottom line of the
waveform to 0 % (0/7.5 IRE).
CONTRAST B Adjust the top line of the waveform
to 100 % (100 IRE).
NOTE:
When the Main menu (except WAVEFORM and
individually displayed menu item) is displayed, the
waveform monitor will be halt.
When the waveform monitor is displayed, the
Main menu will be displayed in order not to
interfere the waveform monitor.
100%
50%
0%
100%
50%
0%
100%
50%
0%
ENTER
Optimal
dynamic range
Monitor position
Optimal
dynamic range