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post #1 of 23 Old 01-31-2017, 06:26 PM - Thread Starter
 
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Question What is A Watt - Really?

Introduction:

I very frequently, read within these forums, the unit of measurement – Watts being misapplied! So frequently that it is clear to me that many don’t know that our audio circuits promote the development of 3-powers, if you will; with only one of them being usable, towards producing actual work, such as moving a speaker-cone, and only that one, is a Watt!

The 2 other powers, if you will, are also present within the amplifier – speaker circuit.

The three powers, again if you will, are rooted in three different types of opposition, to current flow: Inductances, Capacitances, Resistances – LCR for short.

The first 2, dissipate zero, actual power / real power / power that can perform work. Yet they still produce Voltage and Current measurements, which gives the deceptive impression that they do dissipate power. This is referred to as ‘Reactive Power’, and it is assigned a unit measurement, called Volt-Amps-Reactive (VAR), not Watts. The mathematical symbol for ‘Reactive Power’ is the capital letter Q. ‘Real Power’, power that can produce work, is measured in Watts and is symbolized by the capital letter P. The combination of ‘Reactive Power’ and ‘Real Power’, is called ‘Apparent Power’, and it is the product of a circuit’s Voltage (E) and Current (I), without reference to phase angle. Apparent power is measured in Volt-Amps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S.

Real Power = Mathematical Symbol: P = Unit of Measurement: Watts

Reactive Power = Mathematical Symbol: Q = Unit of Measurement: Volt-Amp-Reactive VAR

Apparent Power
= Mathematical Symbol: S = Unit of Measurement: Volt-Amps VA

Prime PQS Facts:

Real Power is a function of a circuit’s dissipative, resistive elements, R.

Reactive Power is a function of a circuit’s reactance X.

Apparent Power is a function of a circuit’s total impedance Z.

All algebraic equations relating these 3 types of power to R/X/Z, use scalar quantities. As such, complex starting quantities such as Voltage, Current, and Impedance, must be represented by their polar magnitudes, not by real or imaginary rectangular components.

Example 1: When calculating Real Power from Current and Resistance, I must use the polar magnitude for Current, and not merely the ‘Real’ or ‘Imaginary’ portion of the Current.
Example 2: When calculating Apparent Power from Voltage and Impedance, both formerly complex quantities must be reduced to their polar magnitudes for the scalar arithmetic.

Breaking It Down Mathematically:

There are two equations presented below, for each respective calculation of a power types P & Q:





There is three equations presented below for Apparent Power – S:



Making It Practical:

Application of the math with pictorial aid.

Purely Resistive Circuit: True Power, Reactive Power, and Apparent Power



Purely Reactive: True Power, Reactive Power, and Apparent Power



Resistive & Reactive Circuit: True Power, Reactive Power, and Apparent Power



Introduction To The Power Triangle:

PQS are related through a graphing, trigonometric form, commonly referred to as the ‘Power Triangle’.
When graphically depicted the relationship can become more intuitive, and easier to grasp.


P = Adjacent, Q = Opposite, and S = Hypotenuse. The opposite angle is equal to the circuits Impedance-Z, phase angle. Phase angles, must be calculated to determine the Real Power, within all AC Circuits. Overlaying these additional calculations, is commonly referred to a Power Factor calculations.

Introduction to Power Factor:

The Power Triangle graphically indicates the ratio between the amount of dissipated (or consumed) power and the amount of absorbed/returned power. It’s also the same angle, as that of the circuit’s impedance in ‘polar form’. When expressed as a fraction, this ratio between Real Power and Apparent Power is called the Power Factor.

Real Power and Apparent Power form the adjacent and hypotenuse sides of a right triangle, respectively, the Power Factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle.

For the purely resistive circuit, the Power Factor is 1 (perfect), because the Reactive Power equals zero. Here, the Power Triangle would look like a horizontal line, because the opposite (Reactive Power) side would have zero length.

For the purely inductive circuit, the Power Factor is zero, because true power equals zero. Here, the Power Triangle would look like a vertical line, because the adjacent (Real Power) side would have zero length.

The same could be said for a purely capacitive circuit. If there are no dissipative (Resistive) components in the circuit, then the Real Power must be equal to zero, making any power in the circuit purely reactive. The Power Triangle for a purely capacitive circuit would again be a vertical line (pointing down instead of up as it was for the purely inductive circuit).

Power Factor is a critically important aspect to consider in an AC circuit. A Power Factor less than 1 means that the circuits must produce, and support more Current than what would otherwise be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit, to deliver the same amount of Real Power to the resistive load.



Amplifier Measurement Standards:

The most commonly used Amplifier Measurement Standards (CEA, IHF, EIA, FTC), only use purely resistive loads. However, the amplifier – speaker network, is comprised of Inductances, Capacitances, and Resistances (LCR) This translates into Wattage Scores, estimated from loads that are purely resistive, being invalid.

Further to this point, the duration of the tests is often less than 1-second, in the range of 13ms, with frequency agitations that are either single tone, dual tone, or various impulses, and short sweeps.

In real world application, the loads are very complex, frequency bandwidth is wide (spanning octaves), and duration of usage is long, often spanning hours.

The Straight Goods:

A Watt is only a Watt, when the Current & Voltage angles are in phase, everything else is quite literally a waste, as in a waste of energy! Incidentally, the Power Factor of any circuit in which the Current & Voltage envelopes are running in phase, have a Power factor of 1, and when its 1, work can be done!

Unfortunately, figuring all of this out, is very complicated, and as such; consumers don’t honestly have any idea, what the Real Power capabilities of their amplifiers are, which has resulted in them calling just about anything a Watt!

Practical Takeaway:

If I may, I would like to offer up a fair rule of thumb, if your amplifiers power ratings have been estimated using any of the following standards: CEA, IHF, EIA, FTC. Take the RMS values and simply divide them by two, and you will have a reasonable estimate of their 24/7/365 power capabilities, in to their highest rated nominal load, which is usually 8-Ohms.
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post #2 of 23 Old 01-31-2017, 07:18 PM
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That's a fantastic summary! Thanks.

One question about that last paragraph... why should we care about continuous 24/7/365 power output capability? Other than the occasional test tone, 100% of the music I listen to has a rather typical crest factor. Shouldn't the power an amp can generate given realistic music content also have some importance? e.g., from one perspective an amp that drops power significantly during continuous usage has a poorly designed power supply and/or thermal design, but from another perspective it may be a modest amplifier as rated into sine waves but has adequate dynamic headroom to handle fairly demanding real world usage.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Bigus View Post
That's a fantastic summary! Thanks.

One question about that last paragraph... why should we care about continuous 24/7/365 power output capability? Other than the occasional test tone, 100% of the music I listen to has a rather typical crest factor. Shouldn't the power an amp can generate given realistic music content also have some importance? e.g., from one perspective an amp that drops power significantly during continuous usage has a poorly designed power supply and/or thermal design, but from another perspective it may be a modest amplifier as rated into sine waves but has adequate dynamic headroom to handle fairly demanding real world usage.
Your Welcome!

The last paragraph - was composed, as a practical take away, or perhaps a better way of putting it, 'a rule of thumb'; targeted at not promoting further discussion, but to curtail it, by taking what is truly out of the reach of consumers to suss out, if you will, and enable them to discern how much power that they're actually likely to receive, from their amplifiers. My reference to 24/7/365 power capabilities, was crafted to suggest that if they followed this rule of thumb (applying it ONLY to the power ratings based on standards that I cited) that the resulting power scores would likely be sustainable, regards of signal injection types (musical program), regardless of duration of play back etc.

Your specific comments / questions toward power supply adequacy, by chance are being currently discussed in another current thread https://www.avsforum.com/forum/91-aud...ce-halved.html as such; your query would best be presented over their - IMO. In fact the more exacting answers to your queries, already reside in said thread.


Cheers

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post #4 of 23 Old 01-31-2017, 08:28 PM
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Nice start! Might as well explain inductive and capacitive reactance (impedance) and how they change with frequency, the difference between average and peak power, what "RMS" means and why we don't usually use "Wrms" as a unit, and why we can't break the speed of light without messing up the whole mass/energy/velocity thing...
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Um, OK.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by DonH50 View Post
Nice start! Might as well explain inductive and capacitive reactance (impedance) and how they change with frequency, the difference between average and peak power, what "RMS" means and why we don't usually use "Wrms" as a unit, and why we can't break the speed of light without messing up the whole mass/energy/velocity thing...
Well, over time, it's likely that I'll end up covering these items. However, most probably, within new and individual threads. As you said, this is a start...

Interesting that your are on point, with the progression that you have presented.

I suspect that you have responded tongue in cheek, at least to some degree, however, I do honestly perceive a need to cover these things off, at least to a degree to evidence their existence and importance towards sonic goodness's, if you will.

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post #7 of 23 Old 01-31-2017, 09:41 PM
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It's watt not Watt

Quote:
Originally Posted by Jady Jenkins View Post
Introduction:

I very frequently, read within these forums, the unit of measurement – Watts’s being misapplied! So frequently that it is clear to me that many don’t know that our audio circuits promote the development of 3-powers, if you will; with only one of them being usable, towards producing actual work, such as moving a speaker-cone, and only that one, is a Watt!

The 2 other powers, if you will, are also present within the amplifier – speaker circuit.

The three powers, again if you will, are rooted in three different types of opposition, to current flow: Inductances, Capacitances, Resistances – LCR for short.

The first 2, dissipate zero, actual power / real power / power that can perform work. Yet they still produce Voltage and Current measurements, which gives the deceptive impression that they do dissipate power. This is referred to as ‘Reactive Power’, and it is assigned a unit measurement, called Volt-Amps-Reactive (VAR), not Watts. The mathematical symbol for ‘Reactive Power’ is the capital letter Q. ‘Real Power’, power that can produce work, is measured in Watts and is symbolized by the capital letter P. The combination of ‘Reactive Power’ and ‘Real Power’, is called ‘Apparent Power’, and it is the product of a circuit’s Voltage (E) and Current (I), without reference to phase angle. Apparent power is measured in Volt-Amps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S.

Real Power = Mathematical Symbol: P = Unit of Measurement: Watts

Reactive Power = Mathematical Symbol: Q = Unit of Measurement: Volt-Amp-Reactive VAR

Apparent Power
= Mathematical Symbol: S = Unit of Measurement: Volt-Amps VA

Prime PQS Facts:

Real Power is a function of a circuit’s dissipative, resistive elements, R.

Reactive Power is a function of a circuit’s reactance X.

Apparent Power is a function of a circuit’s total impedance Z.

All algebraic equations relating these 3 types of power to R/X/Z, use scalar quantities. As such, complex starting quantities such as Voltage, Current, and Impedance, must be represented by their polar magnitudes, not by real or imaginary rectangular components.

Example 1: When calculating Real Power from Current and Resistance, I must use the polar magnitude for Current, and not merely the ‘Real’ or ‘Imaginary’ portion of the Current.
Example 2: When calculating Apparent Power from Voltage and Impedance, both formerly complex quantities must be reduced to their polar magnitudes for the scalar arithmetic.

Breaking It Down Mathematically:

There are two equations presented below, for each respective calculation of a power types P & Q:





There is three equations presented below for Apparent Power – S:



Making It Practical:

Application of the math with pictorial aid.

Purely Resistive Circuit: True Power, Reactive Power, and Apparent Power



Purely Reactive: True Power, Reactive Power, and Apparent Power



Resistive & Reactive Circuit: True Power, Reactive Power, and Apparent Power



Introduction To The Power Triangle:

PQS are related through a graphing, trigonometric form, commonly referred to as the ‘Power Triangle’.
When graphically depicted the relationship can become more intuitive, and easier to grasp.


P = Adjacent, Q = Opposite, and S = Hypotenuse. The opposite angle is equal to the circuits Impedance-Z, phase angle. Phase angles, must be calculated to determine the Real Power, within all AC Circuits. Overlaying these additional calculations, is commonly referred to a Power Factor calculations.

Introduction to Power Factor:

The Power Triangle graphically indicates the ratio between the amount of dissipated (or consumed) power and the amount of absorbed/returned power. It’s also the same angle, as that of the circuit’s impedance in ‘polar form’. When expressed as a fraction, this ratio between Real Power and Apparent Power is called the Power Factor.

Real Power and Apparent Power form the adjacent and hypotenuse sides of a right triangle, respectively, the Power Factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle.

For the purely resistive circuit, the Power Factor is 1 (perfect), because the Reactive Power equals zero. Here, the Power Triangle would look like a horizontal line, because the opposite (Reactive Power) side would have zero length.

For the purely inductive circuit, the Power Factor is zero, because true power equals zero. Here, the Power Triangle would look like a vertical line, because the adjacent (Real Power) side would have zero length.

The same could be said for a purely capacitive circuit. If there are no dissipative (Resistive) components in the circuit, then the Real Power must be equal to zero, making any power in the circuit purely reactive. The Power Triangle for a purely capacitive circuit would again be a vertical line (pointing down instead of up as it was for the purely inductive circuit).

Power Factor is a critically important aspect to consider in an AC circuit. A Power Factor less than 1 means that the circuits must produce, and support more Current than what would otherwise be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit, to deliver the same amount of Real Power to the resistive load.



Amplifier Measurement Standards:

The most commonly used Amplifier Measurement Standards (CEA, IHF, EIA, FTC), only use purely resistive loads. However, the amplifier – speaker network, is comprised of Inductances, Capacitances, and Resistances (LCR) This translates into Wattage Scores, estimated from loads that are purely resistive, being invalid.

Further to this point, the duration of the tests is often less than 1-second, in the range of 13ms, with frequency agitations that are either single tone, dual tone, or various impulses, and short sweeps.

In real world application, the loads are very complex, frequency bandwidth is wide (spanning octaves), and duration of usage is long, often spanning hours.

The Straight Goods:

A Watt is only a Watt, when the Current & Voltage angles are in phase, everything else is quite literally a waste, as in a waste of energy! Incidentally, the Power Factor of any circuit in which the Current & Voltage envelopes are running in phase, have a Power factor of 1, and when its 1, work can be done!

Unfortunately, figuring all of this out, is very complicated, and as such; consumers don’t honestly have any idea, what the Real Power capabilities of their amplifiers are, which has resulted in them calling just about anything a Watt!

Practical Takeaway:

If I may, I would like to offer up a fair rule of thumb, if your amplifiers power ratings has been estimated using any of the following standards: CEA, IHF, EIA, FTC. Take the RMS values and simply divide them by two, and you will have a reasonable estimate of their 24/7/365 power capabilities, in to their highest rated nominal load, which is usually 8-Ohms.
If you are going to discuss power in very specific terms, or the measurement of anything else for that matter, it is important to use the correct units. The entire piece is based on units. They need to be correct. The watt is a derived unit of power, symbol (W) is named after James Watt; also amp not Amp, ohm not Ohm. It is painful to go through something this long with so many basic errors.
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Exclamation It is Watt

Quote:
Originally Posted by bigguyca View Post
If you are going to discuss power in very specific terms, or the measurement of anything else for that matter, it is important to use the correct units. The entire piece is based on units. They need to be correct. The watt is a derived unit of power, symbol (W) is named after James Watt; also amp not Amp, ohm not Ohm. It is painful to go through something this long with so many basic errors.
Sir - if there are any mistakes, they are only going to be in the realm of minor typographical's, due to the length of the composition. In other words, nothing to take away from the clarity of the central theme of the composition, or to invalidate it.

Now for your specific claims:

Quote:
If you are going to discuss power in very specific terms, or the measurement of anything else for that matter, it is important to use the correct units.
Fair enough. But I haven't used any incorrect units - not 1.

Quote:
The entire piece is based on units. They need to be correct.
You've already said this! - And I say again: They are all correct!

Quote:
The watt is a derived unit of power, symbol (W) is named after James Watt;
Yes, I have said as much; and will now add that Watts is capitalized because it is a proper noun - Last name of the discoverer, if you will.

Quote:
also amp not Amp, ohm not Ohm.
Again, like the Watt, Amp is short for Ampere, as in Ampere's Law, as in Andre'-Marie Ampere; making it a proper noun, also.
Again, same, same, same for Ohm, as in George Ohm.
For these same reasons, I also capitalize Volt...
Lastly, I capitalize them because that is how they're presented in all my EE text books.

Quote:
It is painful to go through something this long with so many basic errors
Its painful to always have to swat off your baseless, negative attacks. I have not posted one fallacy, nor have I taken any significant, writers liberties, within the grammatical structure of my compositions!

And if I have taken one or two grammatical liberties, or accidentally produced a typo or few, they in no way invalidate the body of the composition as a whole, or add a measurable level of complexity.

Now, if you prefer not to pay proper homage and present Ohm, Watt, Amp, and Volt as proper nouns, and therefore with capitals, it doesn't bother me in the least, because it has zero effect on the outcome of their respective equations.
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post #9 of 23 Old 02-01-2017, 01:08 AM
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bigguyca View Post
If you are going to discuss power in very specific terms, or the measurement of anything else for that matter, it is important to use the correct units. The entire piece is based on units. They need to be correct. The watt is a derived unit of power, symbol (W) is named after James Watt;
^Watt he said. [The first letter of a sentence needs to be capitalized, as does James' last name, but otherwise lowercase is proper: watt. The symbol is W.]

In A/V reproduction accuracy, there IS no concept of "accounting for personal taste/preference". As art consumers we don't "pick" the level of bass, nor the tint/brightness of a scene's sky, any more than we pick the ending of a novel or Mona Lisa's type of smile. "High fidelity" means "high truthfulness", faithful to the original artist's intent: an unmodified, neutral, accurate copy of the original master, ideally being exact and with no discernable alterations, aka "transparency".

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Quote:
Originally Posted by Jady Jenkins View Post
Well, over time, it's likely that I'll end up covering these items. However, most probably, within new and individual threads. As you said, this is a start...

Interesting that your are on point, with the progression that you have presented.

I suspect that you have responded tongue in cheek, at least to some degree, however, I do honestly perceive a need to cover these things off, at least to a degree to evidence their existence and importance towards sonic goodness's, if you will.
Thanks, and not really tongue in cheek (except the one about Einstein's equation, that was a little cheeky ). I have done a number of basic "articles" like this over on WBF and other sites; they have been well-received. A lot of folk have the education and interest but have not been exposed to these basic concepts, and there are those with the background and exposure who have not revisited the basics in some time (sheepishly raises hand). Most of the key things audiophiles are interested in do not require high-level math for a reasonable grasp of the concepts (heck, I avoid high-level math when I can, and usually use a program when I can't).

Capitalization aside. You will find plenty of folk willing to critique your posts; can be vexing but improves the final product. I have been an editor (IEEE JSSC), and hated editors, even when they were right.

Carry on, and I do mean that! - Don

p.s. Pictures, lots of pictures...

p.p.s. @Bigus -- Those extra things I listed, really next steps, are not that hard to follow and will help explain why we always talk about impedance over frequency and so forth, how crossovers can affect phase and why it matters, and so forth.
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Smile Thanks for the Advice & Encouragement

[quote]
Quote:
Originally Posted by DonH50 View Post
Thanks, and not really tongue in cheek (except the one about Einstein's equation, that was a little cheeky ).


That's a relief, as that one would most certainly have been met with much push back, especially when I introduced the modern day fact that the speed of light isn't constant!

Quote:
I have done a number of basic "articles" like this over on WBF and other sites; they have been well-received.


Any chance of you reposting, over here? That would be a huge time saver!

Quote:
A lot of folk have the education and interest but have not been exposed to these basic concepts, and there are those with the background and exposure who have not revisited the basics in some time (sheepishly raises hand).


I have come to make note of these things. This is my prime reason for putting forth the effort. I do wonder however, if the effort will prove to be fruitful.

Quote:
Most of the key things audiophiles are interested in do not require high-level math for a reasonable grasp of the concepts (heck, I avoid high-level math when I can, and usually use a program when I can't).


Agreed, however, with so many members screaming prove it all the time, taking to the math, if you will, is really our only objective path, at least in here, where we cannot hear.

Quote:
Capitalization aside.


Indeed. If we start critiguing each others posts grammatically, and for proper prose, things would get even more out of hand in here, than they already many times do.

This is a chat based forum, as such; the conversations are predominantly casual, and anything but proper, in terms of 'proper prose'. Our posts in many instances, have no punctuation or capitalization at all, and more than a typo or two.

This shouldn't suggest that anyone of us are incapable of composing proper pieces, if you will; however, it should evidence that we are all posting within the same manner.

In here content trumps form, always has, always will; and a vivid form, gets the most attention, in here.

For me, I chose to write vividly, at least in here, as it is more engaging. I'll use an extra modifier here and there, underline, bold and italic at will, capitalize words to prop up their importance within the context of a point that I am striving to make. And I'm not even close to being alone, in this behaviour, within these forum, walls, if you will.

Quote:
You will find plenty of folk willing to critique your posts; can be vexing but improves the final product. I have been an editor (IEEE JSSC), and hated editors, even when they were right.


I am all for them critiquing / fact checking my assertions; however, I am uncomfortable with comments that are mean spirited, and geared towards 'hand waving' and a large production of hay!

For a time, I was a technical editor for a magazine and I have contributed to some text books over the years. Fact checkers, and grammar police can become frustrating as one come to terms with them, but in those setting, I was being paid for my compositions, and my compositions were also, being professionally published. In those compositions, as well in here, I always capitalized, Watt, Ohm, Amp and Volt, as the grammatical rule book if you will, is not a book of absolutes, but of ever swinging, and modernizing conventions. I chose to view the aforementioned as proper nouns: person, place or thing... Its my prerogative, and its not an unreasonable one, it's an educated one, and one of respect.

Quote:
Carry on, and I do mean that! - Don


Don, I cannot fully express, how much I appreciate your advice and encouragements. To me, when such arrives, its like a ray of light piercing through a dark, clouded sky! I will carry on!

Quote:
p.s. Pictures, lots of pictures...


10-4


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@Bigus -- Those extra things I listed, really next steps, are not that hard to follow and will help explain why we always talk about impedance over frequency and so forth, how crossovers can affect phase and why it matters, and so forth.
Sorry, I was responding to JJ and your post snuck in there first without me noticing. My first career was ME, not EE, but the few required EE courses covered this all well enough. Never hurts to have a refresher though.
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post #13 of 23 Old 02-01-2017, 08:59 AM
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No worries. Threads like this aren't really intended for EE's, or ME's, who already know this stuff but rather for layfolk who want to gain a little more knowledge and don't mind wading through some basic math along the way.
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Sorry, I was responding to JJ and your post snuck in there first without me noticing. My first career was ME, not EE, but the few required EE courses covered this all well enough. Never hurts to have a refresher though.
Oh, I missed that too.

I apologize if you took my direction to post a portion of your questions in another thread, as being in any way, untoward. Such wasn't my intent.

My intent was not to reiterate what I had just, very recently posted, in what was/is still a very current and active thread.

Please accept my apology, for seemingly blowing you off, if that's how I came across.


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post #15 of 23 Old 02-01-2017, 09:43 AM
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The headaches from way back in the day are coming back!

I'm a fan of volts--named after Volta but not an exact name so no worries from the grammer nazis.

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post #16 of 23 Old 02-01-2017, 11:31 AM
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JJ - no big deal. Just a thought running through my mind as I read your post.
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post #17 of 23 Old 02-01-2017, 12:43 PM
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No worries. Threads like this aren't really intended for EE's, or ME's, who already know this stuff but rather for layfolk who want to gain a little more knowledge and don't mind wading through some basic math along the way.
Thats basically a highscool material, so any layfolk out there who don't know that probably didn't finish highschool?

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post #18 of 23 Old 02-01-2017, 12:52 PM
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Depends on how long ago they finished... And maybe have not used algebra since.

I was really trying to let it go, but just can't:

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Thats basically a highscool material, so any layfolk out there who don't know that probably didn't finish highschool?
Typos are a... You know!

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Typos are a... You know!
I actually almost made that typo twice, but corrected myself second time. First one slipped through though.

Regarding your previous comment, at least in my country, it would be more likely that older generations had this imprinted in their long term memory (during communism), since corporal punishment has tendency to make you learn stuff real good and real fast.

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Thats basically a highscool material, so any layfolk out there who don't know that probably didn't finish highschool?
Some exposure to Algebra yes, but little to no examples of real-world applications were provided, outside of financial calculations, within the compulsory requirements.

In Canada, most gained only the compulsory grade 9 & 10 general math credits, and called it done (having understood little). Those with designs on University, did they same, however, at the advanced level. A very small percent, gaining grade 11 & 12 advanced math credits, which carried on to Calculus and Trigonometry.

I don't personally recall being taught any of theses applications, during High School years. I was introduced to them outside of High School, by a local drug dealer (True Story), then afterwards during my University years.

In your country the education standards, must be much-much higher.

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A watt is a Watt...say what?
A Watt is a watt, except when it is not!
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No worries. Threads like this aren't really intended for EE's, or ME's, who already know this stuff but rather for layfolk who want to gain a little more knowledge and don't mind wading through some basic math along the way.
That's me🙋. 22 years in the auto industry. Truck specialist ( in the Deep South) but no real mathematics training other than college Algebra and my trailering/towing guide training for the fifth wheel crowd. I appreciate the opportunity to learn something new.
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That's me🙋. 22 years in the auto industry. Truck specialist ( in the Deep South) but no real mathematics training other than college Algebra and my trailering/towing guide training for the fifth wheel crowd. I appreciate the opportunity to learn something new.
Hi Madmax67

I am glad that you have posted your appreciation for sharing of such information.

Stay tuned, as more will be sure to follow.

In a short while, I will be measuring and posting performance scores from Behringers i-nuke, D-class amplifier line. Things are likely to get really interesting as we discussion the results.

Cheers, and thank you for your encouragement.

jj
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