what's the big deal about crossovers? - AVS Forum | Home Theater Discussions And Reviews
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post #1 of 75 Old 01-30-2004, 09:02 PM - Thread Starter
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I have bought and read Vance's loudspeaker cookbook, and read tons of things on the web about speaker design and I think I am missing something. Everyone seems to say that the crossover can make or break a system. My question is why, or how? I am about to start work on my fianl design for my home speakers and have chosen to go with GR-research drivers all around. For the price I haven't seen anything flatter, and I haven't read anything bad about them either. They seem flat all the way out to tweeter territory, so I figured if I got a crossover and had it at 3K I would be fine. But with a lesser speaker I may have to go at 2K. Is this ok, or am I missing something that makes this decicion so hard? I am getting the feeling that the decision to make it 3K was too easy and there is something else I am not thinking of. What do you think?
You can look at the response graphs at Gr-research's website, they are the M-130, with the T1 tweeter matched pairs. Please let me know before I go screw it up.
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post #2 of 75 Old 01-30-2004, 09:06 PM - Thread Starter
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oh by the way, the crossovers would probably be from Parts Express, the 2 way Dayton 12db Linkwitz 3K crossover. I have thought of using the M-130 speaker that is 16ohm and doing them in parallel, so there is 1 tweeter and 2 mids on each front/center. If any of this matters, I don't know.
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post #3 of 75 Old 01-30-2004, 09:48 PM
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>>Everyone seems to say that the crossover can make or break a system. My question is why, or how?<<

A passive x-over serves many puposes. It can compensate for impedance, phase, and even coloration. Choosing different types or slopes depends on driver interaction and can affect comb filtering and phase. You don't just pick a crossover point, you have to determine where the speakers will roll off naturally, and where the crossover will be most transparent and affect phase the least. The slope of the roll off will also affect these things, and different x-overs types with different slopes will give different results.

Before you build your speakers I would highly recommend reading as much about crossovers as you possibly can. Better yet would be a kit that has been researched and tested so the x-over and drivers would already be a given. Building a speaker from scratch is not an easy thing to get right without a lot of knowledge and/or testing.

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post #4 of 75 Old 02-01-2004, 09:07 PM
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Yup, take AZ Barber's advice. IMO, after months of research - for my preferences I'm leaning towards all 1st order xovers & Accuton drivers in separate sealed enclosures. Unless I go with horns & expensive AER drivers (now from BD-Design). Vance has a good book, but there's tons of valuable info on the web. Besides crossovers, there's baffle diffraction & many different types of speakers (dipolar, sealed/acoustic suspension...), room acoustics, materials etc...

This calculator - two-way first-order Butterworth crossover network http://www.carstereo.com/help/Articles.cfm?id=8
Loud Speakers 101 http://www.carstereo.com/help/Articles.cfm
Two-Way Crossover Network Design http://www.carstereo.com/help/Articles.cfm?id=3
Multi-Way Crossover Design http://www.trueaudio.com/st_xov_1.htm
Two-way cross-over basics. What IS a crossover? http://www.mmxpress.com/technical/twoway.htm
Balanced vs Unbalanced, Passive vs Active http://www.bssound.com.au/advice/bsadvice.htm
Building your own 2nd order passive Crossover network http://www.colomar.com/Shavano/crossover12db.html
The Subwoofer DIY Page v1.1 Subwoofer Integration http://www.diysubwoofers.org/misc/sub_integration.htm
RME level adjustment +4/-10 dBu and servo balanced inputs and outputs http://www.rme-audio.com/english/aeb/index.htm
Matt's DIY audio page http://kahuna.sdsu.edu/~tucker/diyaudio/diyaudio.html
X-overs and Bi-amping http://kahuna.sdsu.edu/%7Etucker...ramblings.html
24db/octave Linkwitz-Riley http://kahuna.sdsu.edu/%7Etucker/diyaudio/xover.html
Active Crossovers for DIY Speaker Builders http://www.snippets.org/filters/crossover.htm
THIEL SmartSub Controller - "Do I need a crossover?" http://www.thielaudio.com/THIEL_Web/...needxover.html
The HS500. The most powerful plate subwoofer amp available to the DIYer today http://www.adireaudio.com/diy_audio/...iers/hs500.htm
Integrating A Subwoofer With Your HiFi http://www.audioetc.tv/articles/inte...erwithhifi.htm
Subwoofers for Music - EXCELLENT http://www.soundstage.com/maxdb/maxdb200101.htm
Google search - subwoofer low frequency cut-off filters (e.g. 16Hz...) http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...ut-off+filters
Why is it so difficult for subwoofers to blend into a system? http://www.vandersteen.com/pages/Answr9.htm
The Marriage Between the Subwoofer and Tower Speakers http://www.audioholics.com/techtips/...fer_towers.php
ACI Subwoofer Primer http://www.audioc.com/information/subwoo.htm
It is common knowledge that crossovers contribute to coloration http://www.merlinmusic.com/reviews/hfr_495.htm
SPEAKER PASSIVE CROSSOVER ASCENSION http://www.jensencapacitors.com/audi...s/artikel.html
"crossoverless" speakers http://www.onhifi.com/askwes/ask0014.htm
Removal of the crossover eliminates phase & group delay distortion http://www.brentworth.com/
and delivers a musical performance that has every nuance preserved
Why horns http://www.hornspeakers.info/
Adire Audio - Maelstrom http://www.adireaudio.com/diy_audio/.../maelstrom.htm
Neutralizing L(e) with a Zobel Network http://www.trueaudio.com/st_zobel.htm
Subsonic Filters are high-pass crossovers centered around 25-30Hz http://www.rockfordfosgate.com/scrip...php?p_faqid=68
subwoofer subsonic filters - Google search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...bsonic+filters
SVS Amp Interface by Marchand Electronics http://www.svsubwoofers.com/marchandsubsonic.htm
No need for subsonic filtering - sealed design http://www.danmarx.org/audioinnovation/theories.html
Sealed Subwoofers http://www.acc.umu.se/~sagge/audio/1259/
Sealed Speaker Enclosure Design Calculator http://www.loudspeakers101.com/SealQtc.htm
How The Linkwitz Transform Circuit Works - and qtc .707 sealed subwoofer http://sound.westhost.com/linkwitz-transform.htm
Therefore a hipass or "subsonic" filter, even for sealed boxes, could help reduce distortion http://www.diysubwoofers.org/projects/cartf/
Sealed Box Subwoofer http://home.insightbb.com/~stephenwm..._Subwoofer.htm
Marchand WM8 "BASSIS" Bass Correction Equalizer http://www.marchandelec.com/wm8.htm
The sealed system provides the best group delay numbers http://www.adireaudio.com/tech_papers/sub_gd.htm
Phase, Time and Distortion in Loudspeakers http://sound.westhost.com/ptd.htm
speaker sub enclosures http://www.madisound.com/
REL Strata III Subwoofer review - let mains run full! http://www.21stcenturyservices.com/audio/REL_Strat3.htm
The Perfect Subwoofer http://www.21stcenturyservices.com/audio/perf_sub.htm
Extended Low Frequency or ELF - mains run full... (active sub) http://sound.westhost.com/project48.htm
Thiele - Small Analysis of Loudspeaker Enclosures http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Sysde...l_analysis.htm
250W SUBWOOFER AMPLIFIER w/REMOTE CONTROL http://www.partsexpress.com/pe/pshow...=300-793&DID=7
subwoofer Class D - Class AB amplifier http://www.xcs.no/index.php?artikkelid=67&back=1
KGND-52100 Powered Subwoofer Amplifier Class D 1000 Watts @ 4 Ohms http://www.madisound.com/kgnd.html
Velodyne SPL-800 Class D subwoofer amp review http://www.audioholics.com/productre...SPL800-p3.html
subwoofer in and out of phase, phase reversing - Google search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...=Google+Search
Audioreview - subwoofers http://www.audioreview.com/Subwoofers/PLS_2741crx.aspx
Welcome to Madisound Speaker Components! http://www.madisound.com/
The Subwoofer DIY Page v1.1 Definitions http://www.diysubwoofers.org/misc/dumax/dumax.htm
Updated NOUSAINE subwoofer data list https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...light=nousaine
Updated NOUSAINE subwoofer data list http://members.cox.net/frankcarter/T...Sub%20Data.htm
True Balanced outputs https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...hreadid=301971
subwoofer calibration system - software http://www.etfacoustic.com/
Adire Maelstrom Speakers Review by Pland http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/spe...ges/97841.html
THE ANCIENT AUDIOPHILE'S QUEST FOR THE ULTIMATE HOME SYSTEM http://invalid.ed.unit.no/~dunker/ultimate.html
ð Speakers Frequency Response http://www.pispeakers.com/PiGraph.htm
Multiple Subs https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...hreadid=298137

Biamplification basics - an article http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/gen...ges/57210.html
DIY speaker building information http://home.earthlink.net/~etunstal/diy.htm
DIY Loudspeaker Designer's Selection Guide (the LDSG) http://ldsg.snippets.org/index.php3

Section 7 - Recommended drivers http://ldsg.snippets.org/sect-7.php3
Recommended drivers technical specifications http://ldsg.snippets.org/sect-12.php3
Appendix A - Loudspeaker Design http://ldsg.snippets.org/appdx-a.php3
LDSG Appendix A - Enclosure designs http://ldsg.snippets.org/boxes.php3#SEALED
Section 17 - Suppliers of prefabricated enclosures http://ldsg.snippets.org/sect-17.php3
Section 16 - Recommended louspeaker kits and plans http://ldsg.snippets.org/sect-16.php3

Speakerbuilding.com http://www.speakerbuilding.com/content/1014/page_5.php
Home Audio DIY Speaker FAQ http://www.lalena.com/audio/faq/speaker/
Details of the VR-6 and VR-8 Technology http://www.vonschweikert.com/vrline/VR-6W.HTM
JPO Speakerbuilding Linklist http://members.chello.se/jpo/
Try downloading a program like WinISD Pro alpha http://www.linearteam.dk/
Welcome To DIYSPEAKERS.NET http://www.diyspeakers.net/
spherical cermaic speakers - least distortion http://www.zako.com/techrev.htm
How to Design a Sealed Loudspeaker? - Qts, Fs sealed speaker enclosure... http://gecko.gc.maricopa.edu/~jmurba...dio/sealed.htm
Thiele-Small Terms and Definitions or just "T/S Parameters" http://www.mmxpress.com/technical/terms.htm
Zobel Networks, speaker design http://www.adireaudio.com/tech_papers/tech_central.htm
Speaker design calculator http://www.mhsoft.nl/spk_calc.asp
Neutralizing L(e) with a Zobel http://www.trueaudio.com/st_zobel.htm
Initial Enclosure and Crossover Designs - Zobel network http://www.angelfire.com/electronic/...modelling.html
Passive Crossover Basics - Zobel Networks http://www.eatel.net/~amptech/elecdisc/xoorder.htm
Crossover Design http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Sysde...ove_Design.htm
Sample 3 Way Crossover http://www.lalena.com/audio/faq/xover/
DIY audio homepage http://www.lalena.com/audio/
The Loudspeaker Design Cookbook - $39.95 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...91827?v=glance
Part II: Digital Filters* http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Signa...al_filters.htm
Design of the Sound System http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Sysde...und_system.htm
Crossover Design http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Sysde...ove_Design.htm
Construction of the Loudspeakers http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Louds...Time_alignment
DIY'ers perspective on the top-selling Bose system http://www.intellexual.net/bose.html
Design of Loudspeakers http://www.linkwitzlab.com/design_of_loudspeakers.htm
Crossovers - 1st order http://www.linkwitzlab.com/crossovers.htm
F - Group delay and transient response http://www.linkwitzlab.com/frontiers.htm#H
JBL horns, speakers http://www.usspeaker.com/
Impedance Equalization Designer Help - Zobel Networks http://www.lalena.com/audio/calculat...ual/help.shtml

3-way 1st order crossover is used in a 3-way vented enclosure system http://www.kbapps.com/audio/speakerd...xover3way.html
Slop Of The Crossover - tweeter/1st order @ 2kHz NO GOOD... http://www.caraudiogalaxy.com/caraud...pcrossover.htm
ScanSpeak tweeters - Google search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...Speak+tweeters
tweeter 1st order crossover - Google search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...rder+crossover
Time aligned, Phase coherent, Phase aligned, http://www.geocities.com/kreskovs/TimeAligned2.html
Transient accurate, What's up with that.
Appendix E - Passive Crossover Components http://ldsg.snippets.org/appdx-e.php3
Crossover Demos http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Crossover_demos.html
Topic: 3 way 1st order crossover http://www.electrical-contractor.net...ML/000006.html
Transient Perfect 2nd Order Crossover http://www.geocities.com/kreskovs/CrossoverdocN.html
3-Way Series Cross-Over http://users.tpg.com.au/users/gradds...oss-overs8.htm
3-way 1st order crossover - Google search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&l...rder+crossover
cascading 1st order slopes http://www.mindspring.com/~chucksaudio/eqptrept.htm
Linkwitz-Riley Active Crossovers up to 8th-Order: An Overview http://www.rane.com/note119.html
Very High Quality DIY speakers anywhere? https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...hreadid=170942
A full 300W into 4 Ohms, this CLASS D unit runs very cool http://www.adireaudio.com/diy_audio/...iers/dt300.htm
DIY parts, tech site http://www.partsexpress.com/
Understanding and Designing Passive and Active Crossovers http://www.termpro.com/articles/xover.html
Designing Passive Crossovers http://www.termpro.com/articles/xover2.html
Crossover Component Selection Guide http://www.partsexpress.com/resources/xover.html
A Different Approach to Series Networks http://www.geocities.com/jonrisch/LBIseries.htm
L-Pad Designer Help http://www.lalena.com/audio/calculator/lpad/help.shtml
Impedance Equalization Designer Help http://www.lalena.com/audio/calculat...ual/help.shtml
Inductors, Capacitors, & Resistors http://www.lalena.com/audio/electronics/rcl/
chart of the frequency range of various instruments http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Sysdes/Musicsp.gif
Music and The Human Ear http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/EARS....e_vs_objective
Fostex Speaker Components - mid-hi drivers http://www.fostex.com/index2.asp?fil...nge/full_range
Fostex Speaker Components - mid-hi drivers http://www.madisound.com/fostex.html
Thiel CS7.2 Specifications 4-way system http://www.thielaudio.com/THIEL_Web/Pages/cs7_2.html
Sealed box - resonance hump (Zobel Networks) http://www.speakerworkshop.com/SW/Pr...losure%20A.htm
Filters, Zobel Network calculator........... http://users.telenet.be/educypedia/e...torsfilter.htm
The Naked Truth about Speaker-Cables http://www.tnt-audio.com/clinica/spkcbl_e.html
The Naked Truth about Interconnect Cables http://www.tnt-audio.com/clinica/intere.html
Series Notch Filter Designer Help http://www.lalena.com/audio/calculat...tch/help.shtml
Passive Radiator Enclosures: In Theory and In Practice http://momentum.soundillusions.net/august02/tech2.html
RLC circuits match transmission lines to loads http://www.e-insite.net/ednmag/archi...97/08di_05.htm
How well do Zobel circuits stabilize the impedence of a driver? http://www.geocities.com/vyque/Caraudio/passives3
Driver Attenuation Circuit - L-Pad http://www.loudspeakers101.com/Lpad.htm
Loudspeakers 101 main page http://www.loudspeakers101.com/Sound.htm
Maximum Power (Resonance) in Series RLC Circuits http://www3.ltu.edu/~s_schneider/phy...esonance.shtml
Solen printed circuit boards - Lpad http://www.solen.ca/pcb2way.htm
"predicted" impedance http://www.lonesaguaro.com/speakers/...lImpedance.gif
L-PADS - calculator!!!!!!!!!!! http://www.eatel.net/~amptech/elecdisc/lpad.htm
Series crossovers, how do they work? And parallel circuits http://home.hetnet.nl/~geenius/Crossover.html
Simplest is best! 1st order, 6dB/octave slope http://members.myactv.net/~je245/spktips.htm
SoundEasy V8.00 has been released - $249.95 http://www.audioxpress.com/bksprods/sotware/sof-sou.htm
First Order (6db/octave) Two-Way Crossover calculator http://ccs.exl.info/calc_cr.html
Unibox software - Design Your Own Loudspeaker Cabinet http://www.danbbs.dk/~ko/ubtxt.htm
Unibox software - Design Your Own Loudspeaker Cabinet http://www.danbbs.dk/~ko/ubdwnld.htm
Series vs. Parallel Wiring http://www.termpro.com/articles/spkrz.html
FRD Consortium is group of designers, experts, hobbyists and programmers http://www.pvconsultants.com/audio/frdgroup.htm
FM (Filter Maker) is a utility for creating Digital Filter Transfer Functions http://www.pvconsultants.com/audio/dsp/dplay.htm
Plotting a Speaker's Impedance: http://www.eatel.net/~amptech/elecdisc/resvsimp.htm
LMS - Loudspeaker Measurement System - $1395 http://www.linearx.com/products/anal...LMS/LMS_01.htm
Passive Crossover Basics http://www.eatel.net/~amptech/elecdisc/xoorder.htm
speaker crossover design software - GOOGLE search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&l...esign+software
plotting speaker's impedance - GOOGLE search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...%27s+Impedance
loudspeaker simulation software - GOOGLE search http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...=Google+Search
The gold standard in analog/digital simulation - Micro-Cap 7 http://www.spectrum-soft.com/demo.shtm

True Audio - Welcome to the Loudspeaker Design Center! http://www.trueaudio.com/win_abt1.htm
Loudspeaker Design Tutorial cont.: Page 3 http://www.trueaudio.com/about_3.htm...ce%20Response_
About WinSpeakerz http://www.trueaudio.com/win_abt1.htm
Multi-Way Crossover Design http://www.trueaudio.com/st_xov_1.htm
Tech topics http://www.trueaudio.com/st_index.htm
True Audio's WinSpeakerz Design Software review +book review!!!!! http://www.hometheaterhifi.com/volum...ctober-99.html
TrueRTA does not have gating (below 300-500Hz measurements) http://home.new.rr.com/zaph/audio/audio-speaker11.html
Input and output sampling rates are adjustable up to 48kHz http://www.soniccontrol.com/news/feb...rueaudio.shtml

Also, Oscilloscope for Windows http://polly.phys.msu.su/~zeld/oscill.html
Techron TEF-20 analyzer - acoustic measurements http://www.speakerbuilding.com/content/1014/page_8.php
A summary of recommended speaker design software packages http://ldsg.snippets.org/appdx-c.php3
SOUNDEASY v. 8.00 JUST RELEASED http://www.audioxpress.com/bksprods/sotware/sof-sou.htm
Version 8.00 New Features and Improvements http://www.audioxpress.com/resource/...fsouimprov.htm
SoundEasy V8.00 has been released http://www.e-speakers.com/
SoundEasy V8.00 has been released - about the programs http://www.interdomain.net.au/~bodzio/
SoundEasy V8.00 has been released - about the programs http://www.interdomain.net.au/%7ebodzio/
SoundEasy V8.00 - import from PC-based measurement systems http://www.interdomain.net.au/~bodzio/
SoundEasy (which I use to model things like non-linear distortion, etc.) http://www.speakerbuilder.net/web_fi...ts/DBP/dbp.htm
SoundEasy - Yahoo users e-group http://groups.yahoo.com/group/SoundEasyuserslist/
EasyLab - Advanced is an expanded section of SoundEasy http://www.interdomain.net.au/~bodzio/

Small-signal parameter of the Dayton 295-300 woofer http://www.speakerbuilder.net/web_fi...ts/DBP/dbp.htm
small signal and large signal analysis http://www.ht-audio.com/e-topic9.htm
difference between small signal model and large signal model? http://www.elektroda.pl/eboard/topic56704.html

LSP CAD - justMLS PC-based measurement system http://home.earthlink.net/~etunstal/diy.htm
LspCAD is short for Loudspeaker Computer Aided Design http://www.ijdata.com/intro.html
LspCAD official site http://www.ijdata.com/
using JustMLS and LSPCad http://www.lonesaguaro.com/speakers/Topaz/Topaz.htm
using JustMLS and LSPCad - excellent measurements tutorial http://www.geocities.com/kreskovs/John1.html
Girardin mic Liberty Instruments http://www.libinst.com/us_domestic_pricing.htm
DIY Speaker Testing Microphone Preamp - Take 2 http://www.gti.net/wallin/audio/preamp2/preamp2.html
True Audio TrueRTA - How might I use a Real Time Audio Analyzer? http://www.trueaudio.com/rta_faq1.htm
Panasonic microphone caplets http://www.panasonic.com/industrial/...ts/rec_mic.htm
A DIY Speaker Testing Microphone http://www.speakerbuilder.net/web_fi...diymicmain.htm
MIC-01 and MIC-02 are low cost precision condenser electret microphones http://www.e-speakers.com/products/clio.html
CLIO MIC-01 - $233.80 Lite - or our own Mitey Mike II http://www.audioxpress.com/bksprods/kits/kc-cliom.htm
"all in one measurement jig" http://www.ijdata.com/justMLSjigCharlesRydel.pdf
audio measurement supplies http://www.audioxpress.com/bksprods/kitsindex.htm
OMP/MF Mono Power Amp Modules from BK Electronics http://www.audioxpress.com/bksprods/kits/km-14a.htm
Power Amp Modules ILP Direct Ltd, UK http://www.audioxpress.com/bksprods/kits/ki-hy2000.htm
Developing a DIY speaker inspired by the Wilson Audio X1 SLAMM http://www.cliowin.com/FOTO/gpphoto/Hancock/slamm.htm

Linkwitz - Panasonic omni-directional back electret microphone cartridge http://www.linkwitzlab.com/sys_test.htm#Mic
Loudspeaker Systems Using CALSOD 3.10 http://www.sonicdesign.se/calsinfo.html
Comparison of calculated and measured SPL curve [in half-space]
of a Vifa P17WJ-00-08 woofer http://www.geocities.com/f4ier/xoversimFAQ.htm
"Calibrating" your Radio Shack SPL meter http://www.speakerworkshop.com/forum...opic.php?t=610
QuickMix - setting the audio mixer on your Windows computer http://www.msaxon.com/quickmix/index.htm
Speaker Workshop Project Main http://www.speakerworkshop.com/SW/Project/Main.htm
How to use Speaker Workshop from Audua http://www.gti.net/wallin/audio/audua/audua.html
Speaker Workshop by Audua web site http://www.speakerworkshop.com/
JIG II and Speaker Workshop http://www.gti.net/wallin/audio/SW/SW.html
DIY speaker building information http://home.earthlink.net/~etunstal/diy.htm
CLIOwin home page http://www.cliowin.com/index.htm
CLIOWin Lite Electroacoustic Measurement System http://www.audioxpress.com/bksprods/kits/kc-cliom.htm
Acoustic links - MANY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! http://groups.yahoo.com/group/acoust..._001014290697/
Measurement Systems http://members.aol.com/nameaudio/links/measure.htm
Liberty Audiosuite
frequency response of the tweeter measured on a LAud setup http://www.io.com/~patman/s2.html
North Creek Music Systems - DIY matched drivers http://www.northcreekmusic.com/LoudspeakerProjects.html
SpectraPLUS 2.32 SpectraPRO 3.32 SpectraLAB 4.32 - home page http://www.cetaceanresearch.com/analysis.html
HobbyBox German home page http://www.audio-software.de/hobbybox_v_5_mls.html
LspLab home - English home http://hem1.passagen.se/johnygre/ENG/index.htm
LspLab home - $400 with mic http://hem1.passagen.se/johnygre/ENG/index.htm

Sample Champion is an accurate and easy to use audio measurement software http://www.purebits.com/scoverview.html
Sample Champion Application notes - Impulse and Frequency Response http://www.purebits.com/appnotes.html
Impedance measurement and Thiele-Small parameters computation http://www.purebits.com/appnote16.html
Impedance measurement: pratical construction of the connector http://www.purebits.com/appnote17.html
Speaker Measurement Jig - chose Sample Champion http://www.raymondaudio.nl/projects/.../project9.html

PC Sound Card Page http://www.epanorama.net/links/pc/sound.html
The Subwoofer DIY Page v1.1 Measurements http://www.diysubwoofers.org/measure.htm
How do i measure the TS parameters of a misc driver? http://www.diysubwoofers.org/cgi-bin...&msg_num=34170
Acoustic Measurement Software http://www.me-au.com/measure.html
ETF3.0 is a software application designed to aid in the tuning of sound systems http://www.me-au.com/etf.htm
SPL calculations http://www.adireaudio.com/tech_papers/spl.htm
How many components? Well, the crossover.... http://www.adireaudio.com/tech_paper...crossovers.htm
Software for Speaker Design http://melhuish.org/audio/software.htm
Driver manufacturers http://www.speakerbuilding.com/drivers/
"close tolerances with their actual/advertised Thiel/Small parameters" - NOT!!! http://www.ellisaudio.com/technology.htm

DIY speaker building information http://home.earthlink.net/~etunstal/diy.htm
FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions about Praxis http://www.libinst.com/praxfaq.htm
So, what does the AudPod do? http://www.libinst.com/praxfaq.htm#t7
Liberty Instruments home page - Praxis, AudPod system http://www.libinst.com/
Re: T/S parameters - Praxis http://www.libinst.com/_disc2/00000033.htm
Praxis forum http://groups.yahoo.com/group/laudus...1?viscount=100
DIY Speaker Testing Microphone Preamp - Take 2 http://www.gti.net/wallin/audio/preamp2/preamp2.html

Golden Ratio speaker design http://www.cs.northwestern.edu/~pdin...s/designs.html
Irrational numbers and cabinet design http://www.soton.ac.uk/~apm3/diyaudio/Irrational.html
Spherical Speakers http://www.oddnoise.com/spheres.html
Cabasse iO spherical satellite system http://www.cabasse.com/english/io/
Gallo spherical speakers http://www.anthonygallo.co.uk/productindex.html
Spherical speaker design http://www.zako.com/techrev.htm
Zako ZM99 bowling ball ceramic spherical speakers review - 3 stars http://www.hifichoice.co.uk/review_print.asp?ID=1652
TRIO Classic perfectly reflects the dynamics of the spherical horns http://www.gtaudio.com/speakers.html
Avantgarde Acoustic Uno Series Two loudspeaker: Robert Deutsch review http://www.stereophile.com/showarchives.cgi?287:11
stuffing/damping material lowers Q, Fs - same as increasing enclosure volume http://www.wmeckle.com/1259/1259.htm
stuffing/damping material lowers Q, Fs - same as increasing enclosure volume http://www.danmarx.org/audioinnovation/theories.html
A Hell of a Show - spherical speakers "with balls" http://www.soundstage.com/audiohell/audiohell200302.htm
Spherical piezoelectric ceramic speaker http://www.murata.com/news/1996/0423e.html
Artistic Audio Möbius - ball perched atop a shiny, fork-shaped tuning stand http://www.smr-home-theatre.org/ces2...mage_008.shtml
Artistic Audio Möbius - ball perched atop a shiny, fork-shaped tuning stand http://www.artisticaudio.com/mobius.asp

Odyssey Setup & Tweak Tips http://odysseyaudio.com/setup_tweak.html
Audio links page, DIY... http://joemacjr.home.att.net/diyproject/links.html
speaker drivers - Seas, Vifa... http://www.linkwitzlab.com/orion_challenge.htm
VonSchweikert Audio VR 2 Speakers Review by ka7niq http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/spe...es/132286.html
Modifying the Vifa tweeter - resonance chamber stuffing, resonance Fs drops http://www.io.com/~dylan/speakers/vifas.html
Robin Marshall: A Modicum of Genius - tweeters, resonance, low Q... http://www.stereophile.com/showarchives.cgi?567:3
2.1 Driver Evaluation in Closed Boxes http://www.trueaudio.com/about_2.htm
Tempest application notes - Bessel .577, Butterworth .707 Qtc http://www.adireaudio.com/Files/Seal...plications.PDF
FRD Consortium - frequency response data & tools http://www.pvconsultants.com/audio/frdgroup.htm
Section 1 - Driver guidelines http://ldsg.snippets.org/sect-1.php3
Linear Team - WinIsd 4.x Beta & Alpha Pro - driver database http://www.linearteam.dk/default.aspx?pageid=winisdpro
WAV-Normalizer - not that good - Maximizes volume level in multible wav-files http://www.linearteam.dk/default.asp...=wavnormalizer
Drivers are listed in alphabetical order http://melhuish.org/audio/drivers.htm
UNDERSTANDING LOUDSPEAKER DATA http://www.eminence.com/eminence/pag...s02/params.htm
Klipsch RF-7 specifications http://www.reliableaudiovideo.com/kliprf7newmo1.html
Klipsch RF-7 specifications http://www.klipsch.com/product/product.aspx?cid=362
Klipsch RF-7 reviews http://www.audioreview.com/PRD_129356_1594crx.aspx
Recommended horn tweeters summary: http://ldsg.snippets.org/sect-10.php3
"How to eliminate low frequency noise cancellation with proper woofer placement." http://www.audiovisualdevices.com.au...ey/woofer.html
How crucial is the localization near the floor? http://www.speakerbuilding.com/content/1039/page_2.php
The Oris Horn Page http://www.welbornelabs.com/oris.htm
The horn speaker home page http://invalid.ed.unit.no/~dunker/horns.html
Specs for JBL drivers http://invalid.ed.unit.no/~dunker/jblspecs.html
The Ambiophonic method is applicable to two-channel sources http://www.ambiophonics.org/
Capacitors in Crossover Network http://www.audioasylum.com/forums/hu...ges/57036.html
The Maya Horn System, Oris horns... http://www.moondogaudio.com/products.htm
Modification of a Klipsch horn (bass) http://www.speakerbuilding.com/content/1032/
Meridian DSP6000 digital amp built in! http://www.avguide.com/product/Main_...SP6000/220.jsp
Tetra Realism™ loudspeaker - Acoustic Reality http://www.acoustic-reality.com/Tetra/text3.htm
The Whomp - it achieves a -3db point of 27hz (-10db @ 20hz) http://www.selahaudio.com/whomp.html
Rear-Loaded (Bass) Horns http://melhuish.org/audio/enclosurehornrear.htm
Basic Horn Theory http://melhuish.org/audio/horn.htm
Avantgarde USA home page http://www.avantgardeusa.com/
Avantgarde's bass systems - Subwoofer SUB225 CTRL PRO http://www.avantgardeusa.com/bass.html
Avantgarde DUO Description http://www.avantgardeusa.com/duo.html
ORIS systems around the world http://www.bd-design.com/en-gb/pg_12.html
BD-Design driver manual for Oris horns http://www.bd-design.com/
Horn foldings (many many designs for BASS HORNS) http://www-user.uni-bremen.de/~carni...hornfolds.html
Accuton C² 44/8 midrange driver http://www.speakercity.com/accuton/C2%2044.shtml
German supermen shatter the laws of physics... again! (bass horns) http://db.audioasylum.com/cgi/m.pl?f...rn&r=&session=
Madisound discussion forum http://www.madisound.com/cgi-bin/discuss.cgi
Ultimate tweeters http://ldsg.snippets.org/vendors/scan-spk.php3
Horns (or why I use horns) http://ldsg.snippets.org/HORNS/horns.html
Solid state amps and horns DON'T MIX! http://www.aloha-audio.com/library/Tube_Fest_Talk2.html
RE Designs LNPA-150 monoblock transistor amplifiers http://www.redesignsaudio.com/LNPA150.html
RE Designs LNPA-150 monoblock transistor amplifiers http://www.aloha-audio.com/library/Tube_Fest_Talk2.html
Monarchy SE-100 delux Mono Power Amplifiers $2,358/pr http://www.monarchyaudio.com/SE100-5.htm
Compression driver and horn/lens assembly guidelines: http://ldsg.snippets.org/sect-6.php3#EMINENCE-C
The Ariel - By Lynn Olson A Brief Note about Efficiency http://www.audiokit.it/ITAENG/KitDif...ArielEffic.htm
The Ariel History By Lynn Olson http://www.audiokit.it/ITAENG/KitDif...ielHistory.htm
Do it Yourself Tube Audio - A Glowing Hobby - subwoofer for Ariel http://www.teresaudio.com/haven/
Adire HE10.1 Kosala Speakers Review by Gene H http://www.audioasylum.com/audio/spe...es/109656.html
Horns and High-Efficiency Systems, speaker types...!!! http://www.aloha-audio.com/library/speaker-design1.html
Audio Asylum - search page http://db.audioasylum.com/
Symetrix SymNet™ Audio Matrix is a family of network linkable audio matrix DSP processors http://www.symetrixaudio.com/SymNet_Web/index.htm

HOME THEATER has a new SUBWOOFER LEVIATHON!!!!! Must read! https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...ighlight=Bdeap
In Reply to: lab12 vs SHIVA on basshorn - Bdeap bass horns http://www.audioasylum.com/forums/HU...ges/55423.html
Tumult driver, Bdeap sub..... https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...ap#post2746806
Gallo Acoustics Due, MPS Speaker System http://www.audiorevolution.com/equip/gallo/
B&W subwoofer - shape http://www.bwspeakers.com/index.cfm/...7F00D0B7473B37
Loudspeaker driver database http://www.thielesmall.com/
Pjay's Speaker building page - driver database http://members.aol.com/_ht_a/pjay99s...eakerhome.html
High sensitivity tweeters http://www.madisound.com/cgi-bin/dis...gi?read=272585

AKG Hearo 999 - headphone amp - center channel effects http://headphone.com/layout.php?topi...tID=0010120999
Headphone site http://www.head-fi.org/
Headphone site http://headphone.com/layout.php?topicID=1
Headphone software http://www.akg.com/products/powersla...nguage,EN.html
Speakers - woofer facing up http://www.blackdahlia.com/samadhi/cbae.htm
World's Most Expensive Hi-Fi System?!! https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...hreadid=295441
Crown K2 class D digital amps - subwoofer
Loudspeaker Technology - cubes, spheres, standing waves.................. http://www.norh.com/about/tech/
B-Deap, Servodrive subwoofer http://www.servodrive.com/SPL-bdeap32.html
Balanced vs. Unbalanced Cables http://www.wpi.edu/Academics/Depts/H...bal-unbal.html
Impedance, damping factor myth, balanced vs. unbalanced connections... http://sound.westhost.com/impedanc.htm
DENOMINATIONS ABOVE ONE MILLION - American & British systems http://www.webster.com/mw/table/number.htm
Series vs. Parallel Crossover Networks http://sound.westhost.com/parallel-series.htm#1.3
Audiophile Capacitors http://sound.westhost.com/cables-p5....e%20Capacitors
Speaker design books and reviews http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/AS...699345-1453419
Class A amplifiers http://sound.westhost.com/class-a.htm
B&W Nautilus 801 loudspeaker outdoor listening test http://www.tnt-audio.com/casse/bw801e.html
Gershman Acoustics Avant Garde RX-20 reviews http://www.audioreview.com/PRD_119559_1594crx.aspx
Mirage Loudspeakers http://www.miragespeakers.com/omnipolar_tech.shtml
JBL Studio Monitors http://www.proaudiosystems.co.uk/aca...itors_162.html
StealthBoxz - sub enclosure, standing waves... (car sub) http://www.auto-acoustics.co.uk/faq3.htm
Google search - subwoofer internal standing waves http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&l...standing+waves
axial, tangential and oblique standing waves http://www.coincidentspeaker.com/about.htm
Rane PE-17 Five Band Parametric Equalizer - for subwoofer (balanced only) http://www.svsubwoofers.com/ampeq_rane_pe17.htm
Center channel speaker(s) https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...47#post1230047
Near field surround system http://www.mkprofessional.com/pdf/mps-422.pdf
Comb filtering effect http://www.asc-hifi.com/acoustic_basics.htm#2
Speakers around TV set - uggghhh... http://www.mkprofessional.com/pdf/mps-422.pdf
spherical and egg shaped loudspeaker enclosures http://www.usenclosure.com/cst-oem.htm
Wiremold power strip http://www.naimusa.com/power.html
Behringer (sp?) DSP 1124 is a great piece of equipment to eq a sub https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...hreadid=312010
Tannoy - 3-way nearfield monitors with nearfield elliptical cabinet http://www.pro-music-news.com/html/10/e20401ta.htm
JBL S36II - molded enclosure with Elliptical Oblate Spheroidal waveguide http://www.*******.com/PID_15014.htm
JBL S312II - specifications... http://www.*******.com/PID_15090.htm
Baffle diffraction http://www.t-linespeakers.org/tech/b...tep/index.html
Loudspeaker Diffraction Loss and Compensation http://www.trueaudio.com/st_diff1.htm
Diffraction from baffle edges http://www.linkwitzlab.com/diffraction.htm
Diffraction is a difficult subject........... http://www.linkwitzlab.com/faq.htm#Q8
AudioPrism Noise Sniffer http://www.audioprism.com/noisesniffer.html
Cabinet shape http://www.ellisaudio.com/CabinetShape.htm
Behringer Feedback Destroyer - setup http://www.snapbug.ws/bfd.htm
optimize low frequency acoustic response of rooms through trial and error measurements http://www.etfacoustic.com/demoroom.all.html
Baffle Diffraction Simulator is a design program and education tool http://www.pvconsultants.com/audio/d...ownloadbds.htm
Understanding Cabinet Edge Diffraction http://www.speakerdesign.net/understand.html
an ideal baffle is very large http://audio.sdecnet.com/diy_reflector/
Magneplanar speakers http://www.magnepan.com/
Magnepan MG20.1 vs. B&W Nautilus 801 http://www.epinions.com/content_2418516100
baffle diffraction compensation http://www.ameritech.net/users/kagato/xover1.htm
baffle diffraction compensation - Google http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...=Google+Search
Baffle Diffraction Theories and Practice http://www.t-linespeakers.org/tech/b...stepcompo.html
Spherical diffraction compensation http://yu-ra.tripod.com/baffle_diff.htm
crossover - with baffle diffraction loss compensation (CALSOD) http://www.geocities.com/capecanaver.../flrspkrs.html
Developing a DIY speaker inspired by the Wilson Audio X1 SLAMM http://www.cliowin.com/FOTO/gpphoto/Hancock/slamm.htm
Baffle diffraction loss http://yu-ra.tripod.com/index_general.htm
infinite baffle measurements, speakers... http://home.new.rr.com/zaph/audio/audio-speaker13.html
Diffraction - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffraction
The Thiele-Small Loudspeaker Database - works w/Unibox http://www.thielesmall.com/
The "6dB Response Step", and infinite baffle uniformity... http://www.northcreekmusic.com/NorthCreekKits.html
baffle diffraction compensation - DIY contest http://www.kaiaudio.com/diy2001/kaiopen.html
Baffle Step Equalisation http://sound.westhost.com/bafflestep.htm
Speaker dust cap http://web.mit.edu/2.972/www/reports...r/speaker.html
Speaker dust cap http://web.mit.edu/2.972/www/reports...r/speaker.html
THIEL floor-standing speakers employ a rounded baffle http://www.thielaudio.com/THIEL_Web/...ffraction.html
The Acoustic Benefits of Phase Alignment http://www.wescomponents.com/SSS/set...s_in_a_rec.htm
The Acoustic Benefits of Phase Alignment http://www.wescomponents.com/sss/aco...hase_align.htm
Time aligned, Phase coherent, Phase aligned, Transient accurate, What's up with that? http://www.geocities.com/kreskovs/TimeAligned1.html
Time aligned, Phase coherent, Phase aligned, Transient accurate, What's up with that? http://www.geocities.com/kreskovs/TimeAligned2.html
Time aligned, Phase coherent, Phase aligned.... GLOSSARY http://www.geocities.com/kreskovs/TimeAligned1.html
Time-alignment measurements http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Time_alignment.html
Veneering Recessed Driver Cutouts http://www.audiodiycentral.com/nt_drvrcutouts.shtml
Time- and phase-correct performance - 1st order crossovers..... http://www.soundstage.com/video/reve...en_theater.htm
Baffle spacing, phase angles and time alignment, revisited http://www.audioasylum.com/forums/pi...ges/11054.html
spreadsheet for offet drivers/crossovers and phase correction... http://www.d-web.com/dbrown/db61ta/phase.xls
For starters, scrambling the waveform is JUST PLAIN WRONG! http://www.meadowlarkaudio.com/TC4.htm
Speakers with vertical baffles are NOT time coherent ! http://www.meadowlarkaudio.com/TC1.htm#1
Illustration: flat baffle, slanted baffle and point source phase responses http://www.meadowlarkaudio.com/TC1p.htm
Subject: Baffle spacing, time alignment and driver offset http://www.diysubwoofers.org/talksho...ages/33527.htm
Crossover transient response http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Sysde...sient_response
ALIGNED DRIVERS? http://members.chello.se/jpo/papers/align/ALIGN.html
drivers time align - GOOGLE SEARCH http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&l...ers+time+align
Subwoofer damping material http://www.diysubwoofers.org/sld/sealed4.htm
The Following is a Discussion on Stuffing a Sealed Enclosure http://www.wmeckle.com/1259/1259.htm
Acousta-stuf @ Parts Express (& damping materials) http://www.partsexpress.com/webpage....ctGroup_ID=137
HyperSonic Sound - focused sound waves http://www.atcsd.com/tl_hss.html
damping baffle panels - with 'Router Pad' http://www.snippets.org/alsr/const.html
Making felt front baffle diffraction pads http://t-3.cc/users/audioworx/page90DIY-FeltPads.html
Felt Rings verses Felt Blocks for Baffle Diffraction Reduction http://www.speakerdesign.net/felt/fe...vs_blocks.html
Reduce front baffle loudspeaker diffraction losses - tweaks http://www.audiotweaks.com/tweaks/tweak_284.htm
Measuring Loudspeakers, Part Three http://www.stereophile.com/showarchives.cgi?103:0
Give it a Tilt! (Tilt your speakers backwards for a new experience!) http://www.echoloft.com/articles/aug2000/tilt.htm
Measuring driver volume - Vs, Vb... http://sound.westhost.com/tsp.htm
driver displacement volume http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&l...acement+volume
driver displacement volume http://www.trueaudio.com/win_abt1.htm
The WinSpeakerz Box Calculators http://www.trueaudio.com/about_4.htm
Avantgarde Trio installations http://www.avantgardeusa.com/installations.html

Room Acoustics http://www.silcom.com/~aludwig/Room_...rrible_optimum
Subwoofer room gain..... http://www.ellisaudio.com/subwoofers.htm
Unibox - Design Your Own Loudspeaker Cabinet http://www.danbbs.dk/~ko/ubtxt.htm
1.0 Introducing The Speaker Design Toolbox http://www.trueaudio.com/about_1.htm...%20WinSpeakerz
Correction Values for Radio Shack SPL Meter http://www.danmarx.org/audioinnovation/rsmeter.html
Rane PE17 Five Band Parametric Equalizer http://www.svsubwoofers.com/ampeq_rane_pe17.htm
parallel & series battery wiring schematics http://www.solarexpert.com/Batteries/batchart.html
Series vs. Parallel Crossover Networks http://sound.westhost.com/parallel-series.htm
SOS - Subwoofer Optimizer System $299.95 each http://www.speakercity.com/Sos/SubwooferOptimizer.shtml
How do you eq your sub? https://www.avsforum.com/avs-vb/showt...0&pagenumber=1
Behringer DEQ2496 Ultra-Curve Pro Mastering Processor (subwoofer) http://www.musiciansfriend.com/srs7/...p?q=ultracurve
Open Baffle Line Array Speakers http://www.geocities.com/dmitrynizh/labaffles.htm
Dipoles/open baffle - Is the "figure-of-eight" radiation better than the "conventional" radiation? http://www.roister.com/eng/faqs.htm
Room acoustics - By far the most uniform response in the range below 200 Hz http://www.linkwitzlab.com/rooms.htm
is obtained with an open-baffle, dipole or figure-of-eight radiating source
The Subwoofer DIY Page v1.1 Dipole Bass Systems http://www.diysubwoofers.org/dipole/
The Contrapunt, a dipole sub woofer. http://www.euronet.nl/users/temagm/audio/dipolesub.htm
Baffle diffraction loss http://yu-ra.tripod.com/index_general.htm
Dipole Bass - Adire Audio DPL-12 drivers http://sho.mystarband.net/BBContent/BBBass.html
2 350 Watt plate amps from Stryke Audio http://stryke.com/amplifiers.html
A Word About Enclosure Filler (sealed subwoofer) http://www.bullysubs.com/design_phil.html
Meyer Sound HD-1 : High Definition Audio Monitor http://www.meyersound.com/products/s...hd-1/index.htm

ELAC Technische Software CARA 2.0 computer program http://www.stereophile.com/showarchives.cgi?438
RPG Diffusor Systems Room Optimizer http://www.rpginc.com/products/roomoptimizer/
RPG Diffusor Systems - CATT-Acoustic v8.0 http://www.catt.se/
RPG® developed the Shape Optimizer http://www.rpginc.com/products/chaos/index.htm
ETF software is a highly accurate PC based acoustic measurement system http://www.acoustisoft.com/
CARA 2.1 PLUS (includes CARA Training CD) http://www.rhintek.com/
CARA - official site http://www.cara.de/ENU/index.html
Updated CHECK OUT the NEW CARA 2.2 http://www.reflexlabs.com/
About Acoustics http://www.reflexlabs.com/page728281.htm
ELAC Technische Software CARA 2.0 computer program review http://www.stereophile.com/showarchives.cgi?438:0
CARA Walkthrough http://www.cara.de/ENU/CARA/index.php?load=box3.html
RPG Room Optimizer http://www.sweetwater.com/store/detail/RoomOptimizer/
The Sound of Quality in Monolithic Domes http://www.monolithic.com/plan_design/sound/index.html
Bouncing Off the Walls Controlling acoustics in a Monolithic Dome http://www.monolithic.com/plan_desig...ics/index.html
Audio Systems Enhance Living Word Bible Church http://www.monolithic.com/gallery/ch...ord/index.html
Test Results Of Acoustics In Monolithic Dome Gyms Delight The Tester http://www.monolithic.com/plan_design/gym_acoustics/
EASE 4.0 - Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers - $1995 http://www.falconaudiovideo.com/
EASE 4.0 - Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers http://www.olsonsound.com/EASE/articles.html
EASE 4.0 - Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers - developer site http://www.auralisation.de/index.html
EASE 4.0 - Takes Off The Limits http://www.ada-acousticdesign.de/eas...out_ease40.htm
ODEON Room Acoustics Modelling Software (dome?) http://www.bksv.com/?ID=2154
Room Acoustics & Sound System Design Links http://www.audioscientific.com/Room_...gn%20Links.htm
JBL Professional software downloads http://www.jblpro.com/pages/software_downloads.htm

room nodes, bass cancellation, EQ... http://www.futuremusic.co.uk/fm_mmus...=6809&PageNo=5
Golden Ratio room setup http://www.audiolinks.nl/speakersetup.htm
Carvin's SX series solid-state guitar amps - John Murphy on tube amps http://www.trueaudio.com/at_eetjlm.htm
WinSpeakerZ "complete" offer, user guide, book, software... http://www.trueaudio.com/catalog1.htm
BassBox Pro - SPHERICAL ENCLOSURES! http://www.ht-audio.com/bassbox.htm
Room interaction - reflections, absorbtion, reverb time, etc http://www.diysubwoofers.org/talksho...ages/34343.htm
Diffraction-Free Sound Waves http://www.aip.org/physnews/graphics/html/yusuke.html
ODEON Room Acoustics Modelling Software - expensive http://helmholtz.oersted.dtu.dk/~odeon//
ODEON Room Acoustics Modelling Software - expensive http://www.bksv.com/?ID=2154
EASE V3.0 http://www.jblpro.com/pages/software/software.htm
Preserving Wanted Sound, room acoustics.... - excellent! http://www.usg.com/Design_Solutions/...preserving.asp
Room Acoustics & Sound System Design Links http://www.audioscientific.com/Room_...gn%20Links.htm

Speak 2.5 - official site - $299.95 http://www.gedlee.com/speak.htm
room acoustics - curved surfaces http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&i...urved+surfaces
Room Acoustics - Design For Listening (curved surfaces...) http://irc.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/cbd/cbd092e.html
Software links http://members.optusnet.com.au/~audiosoft/sahfsd07.txt
Room acoustics (curved surfaces...) http://www.linkwitzlab.com/rooms.htm

Infinite slope crossovers http://www.josephaudio.com/essay.islope.html
DEQX Digital Calibration Processor/Crossover http://www.deqx.com/pdc26.html

Passive Crossover Designer, free passive crossover design software - http://audio.claub.net/software/jbagby.html
FRD Consortium, more free design and modeling software - http://www.pvconsultants.com/audio/frdgroup.htm
ARTA - a powerful and free loudspeaker measurment suite - http://www.fesb.hr/~mateljan/arta/

I have more links, but this should cover most of what I have that's related to DIY speakers (& crossovers...).
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post #5 of 75 Old 02-02-2004, 11:07 AM
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HOLY SH#@!!, Ray....nice work!
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post #6 of 75 Old 02-02-2004, 01:27 PM
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I'm bookmarking this page until I have time to sort through and categorize those links! Thanks Ray... there are pages there that I've never run across!

This should be a sticky...

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post #7 of 75 Old 02-02-2004, 05:29 PM
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Thanks big time. Healthy reading for an education. Definitely a bookmark for future reference.
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post #8 of 75 Old 02-02-2004, 08:18 PM
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Thanks for all the great compliments! Also had a lot of positive feedback on my Free killer apps for your HTPC... thread in the Home Theater Computers section here @ AVS (it was put up as a sticky for now).

It also helps to have some software (& hardware for fine tuning), even if you do know most of the technical aspects of speaker building & design & know what drivers, etc... you want to use...

Loudspeaker design manuals, books, software and hardware: hyperlinks moved to my thread below...

I know there should be other good books, links, etc... Of course any members here can contribute their wisdom.

I was even able to dig up (or create) spherical enclosure calculations for free on the web (from math sites). Many of the more expensive software programs can't even do those calcs...
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I'm speechless. Thank you so much RayL, I'm going to be busy for a long time. That's what I love about this forum, no shortage of people willing to help.
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You outdid yourself. A prince you are.


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post #11 of 75 Old 02-03-2004, 09:01 PM
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Thanks Chris3377 & BOK123!

I'll try to sort them all out a bit more sometime soon, shouldn't be too hard as they're all gathered in a spreadsheet & "halfway" sorted already... I put them in a spreadsheet because my Favorites folder would have been swamped.

BTW Chris3377: the 12dB Linkwitz xover @ 3kHz & tweeter resonance @ about 1kHz should be A LOT better than a 2kHz xover.
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post #12 of 75 Old 02-05-2004, 08:29 AM
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Conceptually loudspeakers are simple devices. Once you start looking at real accuracy, and taking real, accurate measurments, things get much, much more complicated.

From a simple circuit analysis point of view, a major point overlooked here is that a loudspeaker does not have a simple, resistive impedance. The impedance varies with frequency, and even changes radically depending on the enclosure it is placed in. This is in fact one reason so many DIYers like to go with active crossovers, as you remove the interaction with the impedance of the driver. Similarly, drivers which look pretty on paper, don't measure the same when placed in a real box. If we get even deeper into the details, we see that loudspeakers have some very interesting characteristics with respect to time. While many feel good about physically lining up drivers fore and aft, this is generally wishful thinking, as different drivers actually have internal fixed delay which is then compounded with the behavior of the crossover, making for a situation which requires accurate measurement.

This is not to say that every speaker on the market is designed with all of these factors optimally dealt with, as EVERY design makes some compromise.

I encourage you to start by building some speakers, but then get yourself a microphone and use a measurement system to see what you have created and what you are listening to. There are many inexpensive and even shareware systems out there. For loudspeaker design I would look at WinMLS or Praxis, and start hanging out on some of the loudspeaker design forums.

Regards and good luck,
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"Make no little plans; they have no magic to stir men's blood..." Daniel H. Burnham
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post #13 of 75 Old 02-06-2004, 11:40 AM
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Thanks Andrikos (I see you're in AZ too)! And thanks to the moderator(s) (Alan Gouger and/or David Bott I would presume)! I really appreciate the compliments!
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post #14 of 75 Old 02-16-2004, 02:33 PM
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Back on the original topic....

(I) have chosen to go with GR-research drivers all around

In that case, the choice is simple. Buy one of Danny's kits. They are well engineered, thoroughly tested and praised by a number of people. They use good components and won't cost any more than buying the components separately. There's no way you will get as good results buying a "generic" crossover. The reasons for that are mostly explained in Vance's book if you read it carefully. The alternative is to buy measurement gear and simulation software and plan on spending months (years?) refining your own design. That's a fun hobby but it's expensive and time consuming, not for someone who just wants a good pair of speakers.

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post #15 of 75 Old 02-18-2004, 06:11 AM
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Originally posted by catapult
The alternative is to buy measurement gear and simulation software and plan on spending months (years?) refining your own design. That's a fun hobby but it's expensive and time consuming, not for someone who just wants a good pair of speakers.

GR-Research has to make pretty good drivers, especially for the money as the LDSG site also recommends them.

It could take forever refining one's own design, no matter what they put together - unless they have the proper room or area to put them in (e.g. new house time, & equalization or DRC only gets them so far). Then again some very talented musicians seem content with a boombox or "in a van down by the river" system...

Driver selection also seems to be a big part of the equation. The pros all seem to agree compromises must be made - I've seen sites on post grad work tackling it like "rocket science". If one doesn't have good wide range drivers that "compliment" each other, it can easily become so. Not to say driver selection is easy, I've spent many hours making a spreadsheet for that (from tweeters to subwoofers).

I now have hyperlinks for Loudspeaker design software and hardware:

True Audio 'Introduction to Loudspeaker Design" by John L Murphy $24.95 http://www.trueaudio.com/ild_abt1.htm
Vance Dickason's Loudspeaker Recipes Vol. 1 $24.95 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...glance&s=books
Vance Dickason's Loudspeaker Design Cookbook 6th Ed. $39.95 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...glance&s=books
Master Handbook of Acoustics - F. Alton Everest $27.97 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...10240?v=glance
David Weems' Designing/Buidling Speaker Systems 4th Ed $13.97 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...glance&s=books
David Weems' Great Sound Stereo Speaker Manual w/CD-ROM $24.47 http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/se...267016-9510240
Theory and Design of Loudspeaker Enclosures - J. E. Benson (out of print) http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg...10240?v=glance
Unibox free http://www.danbbs.dk/~ko/ubtxt.htm
WinISD Pro, 0.4X free http://www.linearteam.org/winisd.html
Martin J. King's MathCAD models (Quarter Wavelength Loudspeaker Design) free http://www.quarter-wave.com/
Speaker Workshop free http://www.speakerworkshop.com/
WinMLS2000 - loudspeaker measurement $39.00 http://www.winmls.com/
SoundEasy V8.0, EasyLab, BoxCad 4.0 $225.00 http://www.interdomain.net.au/~bodzio/
True Audio WinSpeakerz $129.00 http://www.trueaudio.com/win_abt1.htm
True Audio TrueRTA Level 4 $99.95 http://www.trueaudio.com/
LspCAD, justMLS $129.00 http://www.ijdata.com/
LspCAD PRO, justMLS $495.00 http://www.ijdata.com/
BassBox & Xover Pro Version 6 (w/spherical design) $199.00 http://www.ht-audio.com/xoverpro.htm
GedLee LLC Speak 2.5 (w/spherical design, baffle diffraction) $299.95 http://www.gedlee.com/speak.htm
PureBits Sample Champion Light $99.00 http://www.purebits.com/scoverview.html
PureBits Sample Champion Pro $299.00 http://www.purebits.com/scoverview.html
PureBits Sample Champion - Impedance and Thiele Small Plugin $29.00 http://www.purebits.com/scplugins.html#anc#6
PureBits Sample Champion Pro + all Plugins Bundle http://www.purebits.com/order.html
SpectraPLUS 3.32 http://www.cetaceanresearch.com/analysis.html
SpectraPRO 3.32 http://www.cetaceanresearch.com/analysis.html
SpectraLAB 4.32 http://www.cetaceanresearch.com/analysis.html
HobbyBox V.5 (German site)
CLIOWin Lite with PCI card, signal Conditioner, and Mitey Mike II $749.00 http://www.cliowin.com/tour1.htm
LoudSpeaker LAB 2 with measurement box $310.00 http://hem.passagen.se/johnygre/ENG/main.htm
LoudSpeaker LAB 2 with measurement box including a calibrated microphone $400.00 http://hem.passagen.se/johnygre/ENG/main.htm
Liberty Instruments - Praxis, AudPod measurements, Girardin mic (also LspCAD) http://www.libinst.com/
LinearX Systems LMS - Loudspeaker Measurement System $1,395.00 http://www.linearx.com/products/ProductsTop.htm
LinearX Systems Leap5 enclosure and crossover design modules $1,490.00 http://www.linearx.com/products/ProductsTop.htm
LinearX Systems Leap5 EnclosureShop $795.00 http://www.linearx.com/products/ProductsTop.htm
LinearX Systems Leap5 Crossover Shop $795.00 http://www.linearx.com/products/ProductsTop.htm
EASE 4.0 - Enhanced Acoustic Simulator for Engineers $1,995.00 http://www.ada-acousticdesign.de/eas...out_ease40.htm
CARA 2.2 Plus, Training CD, Audio Test CD $74.95 http://www.visaton.com/cgi/VisatonFr...Artikel_ID=683
RPG Diffusor Systems Room Optimizer $99.99 http://www.rpginc.com/products/roomoptimizer/index.htm
RPG Diffusor Systems - CATT-Acoustic v8.0 http://www.rpginc.com/products/catt/
CATT-Acoustic v8.0 http://www.catt.se/
ODEON Room Acoustics Modelling Software - expensive http://www.dat.dtu.dk/~odeon/products.htm
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post #16 of 75 Old 02-21-2004, 04:24 PM
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Theory is nice. Knowledge is power. Good components are important.

But trying to design and construct a good loudspeaker system from scratch without a competent measurement system is like asking Leonardo to paint the Mona Lisa with a blindfold on.

Liberty Audio has everything you need, for not much money.
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post #17 of 75 Old 03-02-2004, 10:23 PM
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PrimeTime - great recommendation. Liberty Instruments Praxis is also available a a free "no strings" download - outside of getting the measuring equipment.
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post #18 of 75 Old 05-11-2004, 09:05 AM
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Not sure if I add to the tremendous list that Ray posted, but I found these threads to be excellent:


Sorry if any of these were in the list and I missed them!
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post #19 of 75 Old 05-12-2004, 01:28 PM
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Gladiator, I just alphabetized the list in my spreadsheet and the links you gave were not in there. Thanks!

Interesting, the 1st link mentioned 120 dB/octave crossovers - What is an Infinite Slope Crossover?. I've heard of 48, 52, 99 dB/octave in an active crossover system - but this one is passive somehow.

I'll add them in, I also have a lot more links but want to get them in order before I edit the list.
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post #20 of 75 Old 06-05-2004, 08:16 AM
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I worked with digital filters that essentially went from 0 dB to silent (or the digital precision floor) in a couple of Hz. The main advantage is in off-axis frequency response (the drivers can essentially be considered as independent)

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post #21 of 75 Old 06-05-2004, 09:13 AM
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Also with sharp filters & off-axis frequency response is reduced lobing (driver frequency overlap with reinforcement and cancellation near crossover frequencies). Especially between the tweeter & midrange drivers, makes them blend in as a "point source" better (if drivers are spaced reasonably close enough).

I guess there's a tradeoff compared to low/1st order crossovers, which have a better electrical phase shift - but that would be for passive crossovers. Very steep slopes usually are active (bi-amping...), where one could have much more control over each "independent" driver (but is more expensive).
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post #22 of 75 Old 06-10-2004, 01:59 PM
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my implementation was a multirate linear phase FIR one, using about the same resources as a 4th order linkwitz reiley :-)

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post #23 of 75 Old 06-26-2004, 09:25 PM
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the liberty instruments suite was mentioned above... i have an implementation of Laud which set me back (if memory is correct) 800-1000 bucks...


offers software called sample champion which appears to produce prettier graphs than the version of Laud that i have and which is PC/soundcard based. the cost is $199 euros. one of these days i intend to test it and it might be a good place to start, for cost reasons, for somebody looking to get into this type of thing.

Understanding sound isolation
That link may be helpful
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post #24 of 75 Old 06-26-2004, 10:24 PM
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Sample Champion looks like a simple but very effective way for audio analysis from your PC. The mic hookup instructions online look simple enough. Much more effective than a Radio Shack meter. It's a compliment to loudspeaker design software that one might already have - specialized loudspeaker measurement software. Yup, "Just the facts, maam."

The key is the price is not out of the stratosphere, and for those who want to make sure they get their designs & crossovers right (& not just on paper). Their are a few other ones I like too - SoundEasy EasyLab & True Audio RTA, depends on what you need (these 2 are both design & measure).
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post #25 of 75 Old 06-26-2004, 10:34 PM
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hey ray, let me add my kudo's to everybody elses on your amazing list.

i was going to start a thread asking if anybody had worked with Sample Champion, but maybe i'll just ask here and see if that garners any responses. so... ? lol

soundeasy looks interesting for sure, i've never used it.

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That link may be helpful
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post #26 of 75 Old 07-16-2004, 06:17 PM
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I thought the answer would be easy until Ray added a gazillion links.

If my receivr has a choice of crossover frequencies which do I choose?

If my fronts have decent base do I go with the lowest frequency? Or is it trial and error?

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post #27 of 75 Old 07-16-2004, 10:10 PM
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It depends on what features your receiver has. If you have large main or front speakers & satellites, your receiver should be set to cross over low or run "full range" with your sub. It also depends on what settings your sub has if any (which are right on the sub enclosure). But it may be "trial & error" to run surround sound with your satellites if they are "small"... If you run just 2.1 channel, then crossing low should be better with your mains (fronts).

Try to find out the specs on your mains & surrounds (frequencies that they play down to). That way you can determine where more exactly to set the sub. I'm not sure, but setting the crossover to "high" with small satellites playing surround sound might be more balanced - because setting the receiver to "low crossover" you'll miss those lower frequencies going to the satellites & the sub.

Many of those links have to do with crossing over the individual drivers in a speaker & crossover slopes (acoustic & electric behavior). Many links also cover a broad range of topics. I should organize the list better like my "Free killer apps" thread below in my sig.
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post #28 of 75 Old 11-12-2004, 07:30 PM
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As for as crossovers go, the whole goal is to match the frequency response of each driver to every other driver in the system, now you have to take into consideration different types of crossovers.

1) low pass filters, high pass filters, notch filters, and bandpass filters.
2) you need to know what effect the cabinet will have on the speakers
3) you should know your power your sending to the speakers and get components that match those power ratings, you dont want to blow coils or resistors.
4) you also should decide the tolerances you want on the components, tighter tolerances like 2% or 5% will give you greater control on the frequency that is cut off, less guessing and you can be really specific.

How many drivers are you using? What are their characteristics in the cabinet? Where is their -3db point? Where to crossover the mid and the tweeter is where you should spend your time on. You want to make sure the voices, 1000-5000 hz, are being played out of the driver that can best handle those frequencies, if you can find a tweeter that can play low or a mid that can play the highs easily that would be ideal. As far as for woofers, I'm not familiar with that brand but if their is a woofer involved I'd find out if you are going to port it or not. Then put a hpf on it also called a subsonic filter for the ported application. Sealed woofers will naturally filter themselves mechanically in the proper enclosure.

To do it right you should get a ociliscope for a weekend and mic each speaker in the enclosure with white noise then find your -3db point and find the slope you need and go from there with power specs.

Just one mans opinion. If your building the cabinet build the xover!
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post #29 of 75 Old 11-16-2004, 04:50 AM
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i still have to say...
can you get some links on diy projector screens and anything else????
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post #30 of 75 Old 11-19-2004, 08:06 AM
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Thanks for the compliment thundabot. Sorry about the late reply, I've been doing a lot of DIY repair & cleanup in the yard & house lately. I have some info on the new DLP HDTVs, & a few good under $2000 USD projectors. DIY projector screens looks cool. With space & room permitting a projector with a DIY in-wall screen would go nice with in-wall speakers.

I do have a bunch more "newer" audio links in a separate spreadsheet. Some are the same as in this thread, so I have to sort them out before I post (so they will not be listed twice). I'd like to just post them right away, as there must now be over a thousand in all & it could take a while to sort.
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