Power-Amp = amplifies line-level inputs by a fixed amount called "gain" and has speaker outputs. ( Bryston amps have a gain of 29db )
Pre-Amp = Input switcher and variable volume Control. "Most" Pre-amps also have a phono-stage onboard that will provide additional gain for inputs from turntables.
Line-Stage Pre-amp = a Pre-amp without a phono stage
Phono-Stage = Phono cartridges usually output very low voltages which are still too low for a pre-amp to amplify in order to get appropriate playback volumes. A Phone-Stage is usually a dedicated specific amplifer of fixed gain that sits between your turntable and pre-amp.
Integrated Amp = Pre-Amp + Power-Amp in one box
Receiver = Tuner + Pre-Amp + Power-Amp in one box
... Traditionally all of the above are specific to only analog inputs.
Andy has done a good job of explaining these terms. However, there have been many power amplifiers with adjustable gain - it is not always fixed.
This "feature" comes in handy when you are looking to biamp speakers, and your two amps have distinct personalities (e.g. SS beast for the bass mated with sweet sounding tubes for the mids and highs). Since both are being processed by the same preamp, it may be desirable to have adjustable gain in one (or both) power amps.
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