Well, the first thing you'd have to deal with is Macrovision. The impedance of whatever capture card you use might activate the DVD's Macrovision protection. Then you get all that wonderful stuff like the picture fading in and out.
Assuming that isn't an issue, you would get a usable composite or S-Video signal into the PC through the capture card, but even deinterlaced and scrubbed through something like DScaler, it still wouldn't look at good as a PC-Based playback solution. If you could tell us why you need to use a separate DVD player, and what kind of setup you have, it'd be helpful.
I think to get it anywhere close to how it would look from a cheap internal dvd drive you'd need to use one of those new faroudja-equipped capture cards (about 20x the cost of a decent internal dvd drive) and you still might also have to deal with macrovision. And it still wouldn't necessarily look as good, either.
You can spend a LOT of money to get a good input card for your HTPC --- I think the Holograph ones are around $800, and then you'll be able to match the quality you will get from an internal drive.
Of course a good question to ask is "why bother" when a $100 DVD drive for the computer will do the same thing. The only answer I can come up with is to retain the user-friendliness of the DVD unit you are connecting.
With the current level of computer hardware, a good HTPC will out perform pretty much any stand alone DVD player out there. The only thing I don't like about having a PC instead of a player is the fan noise, I got it down really quiet but its not silent and I don't want to go to the effort of water cooling a PC (water + electricity = bad imo)
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