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How does stereo upmixing work? Is there any place with samples of upmixed audio, perhaps with input and output waveforms?

These two pages explain it some:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_decoder

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolby_Pro_Logic
Actually, neither one of those links are related to what I think you are asking about. Those links talk about a process where X channels are encoded into Y channels with X > Y. And then a decoder extracts those X channels out of Y.

The process of taking any old say 2-channel content with no special encoding into higher number of channels relies on extracting what the system "thinks" would have been there if you had the other channels. For example, mono midfrequencies may be extracted and sent to a center channel assuming they would be vocals. Other types of steering logic is used to guess what would have been in the other speakers to varying success. Best paper I know on this topic is a classic by David Griesinger of Lexicon fame: http://www.aes.org/e-lib/browse.cfm?elib=6104. "Theory and Design of a Digital Audio Signal Processor for Home Use."
 
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